*See also the tutorial on how to simulate a simple simulation for details on basic parameterisation.*

```
## Initialisation of the simulation
simul_params <- createSimulParams(outputDir = getwd())
## Seed
simul_params@Seed
simul_params <- setSeed(simul_params, seed = 1)
simul_params@Seed
## Time parameters
Nyears = 6
nTSpY = 120
simul_params <- setTime(simul_params, Nyears = Nyears, nTSpY = nTSpY)
## Landscape
landscape <- loadLandscape(id = 1)
simul_params <- setLandscape(simul_params, land = landscape)
```

*See also the tutorial on how to parameterise landscape and dispersal to use your own landscape and compute your own dispersal matrices.*

A built-in parameterisation different pathogens (e.g. rusts of cereal crops) is available using the function `loadPathogen()`

:

The built-in parameterisation for “rust” simulates a pathogen which reproduces purely clonally (repro_sex_prob = 0). It is also possible to simulate a pathogen which reproduces purely sexually, or both sexually and clonally at every timestep:

```
basic_patho_param$repro_sex_prob <- 1 ## at every time step all pathogen individuals reproduces sexually
basic_patho_param$repro_sex_prob <- 0 ## at every time step all pathogen individuals reproduces clonally
basic_patho_param$repro_sex_prob <- 0.5 ## at every time step half of the pathogen population
## reproduce clonally and half sexually
basic_patho_param
#> $name
#> [1] "rust"
#>
#> $survival_prob
#> [1] 1e-04
#>
#> $repro_sex_prob
#> [1] 0.5
#>
#> $infection_rate
#> [1] 0.4
#>
#> $propagule_prod_rate
#> [1] 3.125
#>
#> $latent_period_mean
#> [1] 10
#>
#> $latent_period_var
#> [1] 9
#>
#> $infectious_period_mean
#> [1] 24
#>
#> $infectious_period_var
#> [1] 105
#>
#> $sigmoid_kappa
#> [1] 5.333
#>
#> $sigmoid_sigma
#> [1] 3
#>
#> $sigmoid_plateau
#> [1] 1
#>
#> $sex_propagule_viability_limit
#> [1] 1
#>
#> $sex_propagule_release_mean
#> [1] 1
#>
#> $clonal_propagule_gradual_release
#> [1] 0
```

To simulate a pathogen with a mixed reproduction system composed of multiple events of clonal reproduction during the epidemic phase, followed by a single event of sexual reproduction at the end of the cropping season, a vector of probabilities of sexual reproduction (one for each timestep of the cropping season) can be given (i.e. `repro_sex_prob = 0`

during the epidemic period `[1:nTSpY]`

, and `repro_sex_prob = 1`

at the end of the cropping season).

The vector containing the probability of sexual reproduction for each timestep is used to fuel the object `simul_params`

via the function `updateReproSexProb()`

:

```
simul_params <- updateReproSexProb(simul_params, repro_sex_probs)
simul_params@Pathogen
#> $name
#> [1] "no pathogen"
#>
#> $survival_prob
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $repro_sex_prob
#> [1] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#> [38] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#> [75] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
#> [112] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
#>
#> $infection_rate
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $propagule_prod_rate
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $latent_period_mean
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $latent_period_var
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $infectious_period_mean
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $infectious_period_var
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $sigmoid_kappa
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $sigmoid_sigma
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $sigmoid_plateau
#> [1] 1
#>
#> $sex_propagule_viability_limit
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $sex_propagule_release_mean
#> [1] 0
#>
#> $clonal_propagule_gradual_release
#> [1] 0
```

Sexual propagules may be released gradually during the following seasons (i.e. years). The following parameters set the average number of cropping seasons after which a sexual propagule is released and the maximum number of cropping seasons up to which a sexual propagule is viable:

```
basic_patho_param$sex_propagule_release_mean = 1
basic_patho_param$sex_propagule_viability_limit = 5
simul_params <- setPathogen(simul_params, basic_patho_param)
```

Within a cropping season, the day of release of every sexual propagule is sampled from a uniform distribution with parameters {0;nTSpY}.

Clonal propagules produced at the end of a cropping season are released during the following season only, either altogether at the first day of the season (by setting the parameter `clonal_propagule_gradual_release = FALSE`

), or progressively (`clonal_propagule_gradual_release = TRUE`

). In the second case the day of release of each propagule is sampled from a uniform distribution with parameters {0;nTSpY}.

Dispersal for both sexual and clonal propagules is given by vectorised matrices giving the probability of dispersal from any field of the landscape to any other field. The size of these matrices must be the square of the number of fields in the landscape. It is thus specific to both the pathogen and the landscape. For rusts pathogens, built-in dispersal matrices (for sexual and clonal propagules) are available for each landscape using the function `loadDispersalPathogen()`

:

The first element of the list `disp_patho`

contains the vectorized dispersal matrix for clonal propagules, while the second element contains the vectorized dispersal matrix for sexual propagules (by default this is a diagonal matrix, i.e. sexual propagules spread only locally and there is no between-field dispersal of sexual propagules).

```
disp_patho_clonal <- disp_patho[[1]]
disp_patho_sex <- disp_patho[[2]]
head(disp_patho_clonal)
#> [1] 8.814254e-01 9.525884e-04 7.079895e-10 1.594379e-10 3.285800e-06
#> [6] 3.634297e-11
head(disp_patho_sex)
#> [1] 1 0 0 0 0 0
```

Dispersal matrices can be modified, for example, to simulate a pathogen whose sexual propagules have the same dispersal ability as clonal propagules:

```
disp_patho_clonal <- disp_patho[[1]]
disp_patho_sex <- disp_patho[[1]]
head(disp_patho_clonal)
#> [1] 8.814254e-01 9.525884e-04 7.079895e-10 1.594379e-10 3.285800e-06
#> [6] 3.634297e-11
head(disp_patho_sex)
#> [1] 8.814254e-01 9.525884e-04 7.079895e-10 1.594379e-10 3.285800e-06
#> [6] 3.634297e-11
```

Then, the object `simul_params`

is updated with the dispersal matrices via the function `setDispersalPathogen()`

:

For a given parental pair, the genotype of each propagule is issued from random loci segregation of parental qualitative resistance genes. For each quantitative resistance gene, the value of each propagule trait is issued from a normal distribution around the average of the parental traits, with standard deviation defined by the parameter `recombination_sd`

, following the infinitesimal model (Fisher 1919).

All the other steps (e.g. setting croptypes, cultivars, resistance genes …) are not impacted by pathogen reproduction system, they are fully described in running a simple simulation

```
# Cultivars
cultivar1 <- loadCultivar(name = "Susceptible", type = "wheat")
cultivar2 <- loadCultivar(name = "Resistant1", type = "wheat")
cultivar3 <- loadCultivar(name = "Resistant2", type = "wheat")
cultivars <- data.frame(rbind(cultivar1, cultivar2, cultivar3)
, stringsAsFactors = FALSE)
# Allocating genes to cultivars
simul_params <- setGenes(simul_params, dfGenes = genes)
simul_params <- setCultivars(simul_params, dfCultivars = cultivars)
simul_params <- allocateCultivarGenes(simul_params
, cultivarName = "Resistant1"
, listGenesNames = c("gene 1"))
simul_params <- allocateCultivarGenes(simul_params
, cultivarName = "Resistant2"
, listGenesNames = c("gene 2"))
# Allocating cultivars to croptypes
croptypes <- loadCroptypes(simul_params, names = c("Susceptible crop"
, "Resistant crop 1"
, "Resistant crop 2"))
croptypes <- allocateCroptypeCultivars(croptypes
, croptypeName = "Susceptible crop"
, cultivarsInCroptype = "Susceptible")
croptypes <- allocateCroptypeCultivars(croptypes
, croptypeName = "Resistant crop 1"
, cultivarsInCroptype = "Resistant1")
croptypes <- allocateCroptypeCultivars(croptypes
, croptypeName = "Resistant crop 2"
, cultivarsInCroptype = "Resistant2")
simul_params <- setCroptypes(simul_params, dfCroptypes = croptypes)
# Allocating croptypes to fields of the landscape
rotation_sequence <- croptypes$croptypeID ## No rotation -> 1 rotation_sequence element
rotation_period <- 0 # number of years before rotation of the landscape
prop <- c(1/3,1/3,1/3) # proportion (in surface) of each croptype
aggreg <- 0 # level of spatial aggregation
simul_params <- allocateLandscapeCroptypes(simul_params
, rotation_period = rotation_period
, rotation_sequence = rotation_sequence
, prop = prop
, aggreg = aggreg
, graphic = FALSE)
## Inoculum
simul_params <- setInoculum(simul_params, 5e-4)
# Choosing output variables
outputlist <- loadOutputs(epid_outputs = "all", evol_outputs = "all")
simul_params <- setOutputs(simul_params, outputlist)
```