smacof: Multidimensional Scaling

Provides the following approaches for multidimensional scaling (MDS) based on stress minimization by means of majorization (smacof): basic MDS on symmetric dissimilarity matrices, MDS with external constraints on the configuration, individual difference scaling (idioscal, indscal, and friends), MDS with spherical restrictions, and unfolding. The MDS type can be ratio, interval, ordinal, and monotone splines. Various tools and extensions like jackknife MDS, permutation tests, gravity models, inverse MDS, unidimensional scaling, classical scaling, and Procrustes.

Version: 1.8-13
Depends: R (≥ 3.0.2)
Imports: graphics, stats, polynom, Hmisc, colorspace, nnls, grDevices, MASS, weights
Suggests: knitr, RgoogleMaps, plotrix
Published: 2016-04-22
Author: Patrick Mair [aut, cre], Jan De Leeuw [aut], Ingwer Borg [ctb], Patrick J. F. Groenen [ctb]
Maintainer: Patrick Mair <mair at>
License: GPL-3
NeedsCompilation: yes
Citation: smacof citation info
Materials: NEWS
In views: Psychometrics
CRAN checks: smacof results


Reference manual: smacof.pdf
Vignettes: SMACOF in R
Package source: smacof_1.8-13.tar.gz
Windows binaries: r-devel:, r-release:, r-oldrel:
OS X Mavericks binaries: r-release: smacof_1.8-13.tgz, r-oldrel: smacof_1.8-13.tgz
Old sources: smacof archive

Reverse dependencies:

Reverse depends: FreeSortR, mdsOpt


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