Extending tidyndr

While the {tidyndr} package focuses on generating line-list of common PEPFAR indicators and providing summaries for these, a few indicators are derived from mathematical calculation of existing indicators. These indicators include:

  1. TX_NET_NEW

  2. Continuity of Treatment (Retention) Proxy

  3. Viral Load Testing Coverage

  4. Viral Load Suppression Coverage

  5. Duration of ARV Dispensed

library(tidyndr)
library(dplyr)

TX_NET_NEW

This indicator measures the increase (or decrease) in the number of clients on ART over a period of time. It is calculated by subtracting the number of active clients in a previous period from the number of active clients from the current period.

\(tx\_net\_new\ =\ tx\_curr\ current\ period - tx\_curr\ previous\ period\)

To create this in R, we will:

  1. Import the line-list of the previous NDR data and the current NDR data.

  2. Generate the line-list of the tx_curr for each of the imported data.

  3. Summarize our line-list at the desired level (“ip”, “state” or “facility”) using the summarise_ndr().

  4. Subtract the value of the previous tx_curr from the current tx_curr.

## import both previous and current NDR line-lists
file_path <- "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/stephenbalogun/example_files/main/ndr_example.csv"

prev_data <- read_ndr(file_path,
                     time_stamp = "2020-12-31") 
current_data <- read_ndr(file_path,
                     time_stamp = "2020-02-28") 

## generate the tx_curr for each of the imported line-lists
tx_curr_prev <- tx_curr(prev_data)

tx_curr_now <- tx_curr(current_data)

## summarise the treatment currents at state level
tx_currs <- summarise_ndr(tx_curr_prev,
              tx_curr_now,
              level = "state",
              names = c("tx_curr_prev", "tx_curr_now"))

## create a new column that calculates the tx_net_new
tx_net_new <- tx_currs %>%
  mutate(tx_net_new = tx_curr_now - tx_curr_prev)

print(tx_net_new)
#> # A tibble: 4 x 5
#>   ip      state   tx_curr_prev tx_curr_now tx_net_new
#>   <chr>   <chr>          <int>       <int>      <int>
#> 1 IP_name State 1         5067        6032        965
#> 2 IP_name State 2         7068        8523       1455
#> 3 IP_name State 3         9502       10758       1256
#> 4 Total   -              21637       25314       3677

Continuity of Treatment (Retention) Proxy

Previously called “Retention Proxy”. It measures how many of the clients who started the period of interest remained on treatment at the end of that period. It is generally calculated using two different formulas:

\(Continuity\ of\ Treatment\ Proxy\ = \frac{tx\_curr\ at\ end\ of\ reporting\ period}{tx\_curr\ at\ beginning\ of\ period\ +\ tx\_new\ during\ period}\)

or using the standard PEPFAR formula -

\(Continuity\ of\ Treatment\ Proxy\ = 1\ +\ \frac{(tx\_net\_new\ *\ 4)\ -\ (tx\_new\ *\ 4)}{[tx\_curr\ -\ tx\_net\_new\ +\ (tx\_new\ *\ 4)]}\)

To calculate the Continuity of Treatment Proxy using the second approach, we will:

## calculate the tx_new between the two periods
tx_new <- tx_new(current_data, from = "2021-01-01", to = "2021-02-28") %>%
  summarise_ndr(level = "state", names = "tx_new")

## add the tx_new summary to the initial table and calculate the tx_net_new
tx_net_new %>%
  left_join(tx_new, by = c("ip", "state")) %>%
  mutate(cot_proxy = 1 + (
  ((tx_net_new * 4) - (tx_new) * 4 ) /
    (tx_curr_now - tx_net_new + (tx_new * 4)))
  )
#> # A tibble: 4 x 7
#>   ip      state   tx_curr_prev tx_curr_now tx_net_new tx_new cot_proxy
#>   <chr>   <chr>          <int>       <int>      <int>  <int>     <dbl>
#> 1 IP_name State 1         5067        6032        965    272      1.45
#> 2 IP_name State 2         7068        8523       1455    300      1.56
#> 3 IP_name State 3         9502       10758       1256    984      1.08
#> 4 Total   -              21637       25314       3677   1556      1.30

Viral Load Testing Coverage

The standard viral load testing coverage is calculated by dividing the number of clients with a viral load test result in the period of interest by the number of active clients within the same program 6 months prior.

\(1.\ Viral\ Load\ Testing\ Coverage = \frac{tx\_pvls\_den}{tx\_curr\ 6\ months\ prior}\ *\ 100\)

This means that you will be needing two different datasets (i.e. the current dataset and the dataset of 6 months ago). In the absence of these two datasets, viral load testing coverage can be estimated by calculating the number of clients with a viral load result and dividing by the total number of clients estimated to be eligible for viral load during the period under review.

\(2.\ Viral\ Load\ Testing\ Coverage = \frac{tx\_pvls\_den}{tx\_vl\_eligible}\ *\ 100\)

Below is an example using the second approach:

vl_eligible <- tx_vl_eligible(current_data)

vl_result <- tx_pvls_den(current_data)

nrow(vl_result) / nrow(vl_eligible) * 100
#> [1] 10.40316

Viral Load Suppression Coverage

This is calculated using:

\(Viral\ Load\ Suppression\ Coverage = \frac{tx\_pvls\_num\ (no.\ of\ clients\ who\ are\ virally\ suppressed)}{tx\_pvls\_den\ (no.\ of\ clients\ with\ viral\ load\ results)}\)

vl_result <- tx_pvls_den(current_data)

vl_suppressed <- tx_pvls_num(current_data)

nrow(vl_suppressed) / nrow(vl_result) * 100
#> [1] 38.90578

Duration of ARV Dispensed

The months of ARV dispensed is sometimes disaggregated into “<3 months”, “3 - 5 months”, “6+ months”. To calculate these we execute a similar line of code as below:

less_than_three <- tx_mmd(ndr_example, months = c(0, 1, 2))

three_to_five <- tx_mmd(ndr_example, months = c(3, 4, 5))

six_plus <- tx_mmd(ndr_example, months = c(6:12))

summarise_ndr(less_than_three,
              three_to_five,
              six_plus,
              level = "state",
              names = c(
                "< 3months",
                "3-5months",
                "6+ months"
              ))
#> # A tibble: 4 x 5
#>   ip      state   `< 3months` `3-5months` `6+ months`
#>   <chr>   <chr>         <int>       <int>       <int>
#> 1 IP_name State 1         711        2064         951
#> 2 IP_name State 2         989        3632         437
#> 3 IP_name State 3         686        3579        3647
#> 4 Total   -              2386        9275        5035