Estimating Monotonic Effects with brms

Paul Bürkner

2021-03-11

Introduction

This vignette is about monotonic effects, a special way of handling discrete predictors that are on an ordinal or higher scale (Bürkner & Charpentier, in review). A predictor, which we want to model as monotonic (i.e., having a monotonically increasing or decreasing relationship with the response), must either be integer valued or an ordered factor. As opposed to a continuous predictor, predictor categories (or integers) are not assumed to be equidistant with respect to their effect on the response variable. Instead, the distance between adjacent predictor categories (or integers) is estimated from the data and may vary across categories. This is realized by parameterizing as follows: One parameter, \(b\), takes care of the direction and size of the effect similar to an ordinary regression parameter. If the monotonic effect is used in a linear model, \(b\) can be interpreted as the expected average difference between two adjacent categories of the ordinal predictor. An additional parameter vector, \(\zeta\), estimates the normalized distances between consecutive predictor categories which thus defines the shape of the monotonic effect. For a single monotonic predictor, \(x\), the linear predictor term of observation \(n\) looks as follows:

\[\eta_n = b D \sum_{i = 1}^{x_n} \zeta_i\]

The parameter \(b\) can take on any real value, while \(\zeta\) is a simplex, which means that it satisfies \(\zeta_i \in [0,1]\) and \(\sum_{i = 1}^D \zeta_i = 1\) with \(D\) being the number of elements of \(\zeta\). Equivalently, \(D\) is the number of categories (or highest integer in the data) minus 1, since we start counting categories from zero to simplify the notation.

A Simple Monotonic Model

A main application of monotonic effects are ordinal predictors that can be modeled this way without falsely treating them either as continuous or as unordered categorical predictors. In Psychology, for instance, this kind of data is omnipresent in the form of Likert scale items, which are often treated as being continuous for convenience without ever testing this assumption. As an example, suppose we are interested in the relationship of yearly income (in $) and life satisfaction measured on an arbitrary scale from 0 to 100. Usually, people are not asked for the exact income. Instead, they are asked to rank themselves in one of certain classes, say: ‘below 20k’, ‘between 20k and 40k’, ‘between 40k and 100k’ and ‘above 100k’. We use some simulated data for illustration purposes.

income_options <- c("below_20", "20_to_40", "40_to_100", "greater_100")
income <- factor(sample(income_options, 100, TRUE), 
                 levels = income_options, ordered = TRUE)
mean_ls <- c(30, 60, 70, 75)
ls <- mean_ls[income] + rnorm(100, sd = 7)
dat <- data.frame(income, ls)

We now proceed with analyzing the data modeling income as a monotonic effect.

fit1 <- brm(ls ~ mo(income), data = dat)

The summary methods yield

summary(fit1)
 Family: gaussian 
  Links: mu = identity; sigma = identity 
Formula: ls ~ mo(income) 
   Data: dat (Number of observations: 100) 
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 2000; warmup = 1000; thin = 1;
         total post-warmup samples = 4000

Population-Level Effects: 
          Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
Intercept    30.71      1.25    28.21    33.22 1.00     2983     2688
moincome     14.90      0.68    13.62    16.23 1.00     2286     2203

Simplex Parameters: 
             Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
moincome1[1]     0.65      0.04     0.57     0.73 1.00     2823     2515
moincome1[2]     0.24      0.04     0.15     0.33 1.00     3601     2734
moincome1[3]     0.11      0.04     0.02     0.19 1.00     2573     1943

Family Specific Parameters: 
      Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sigma     6.94      0.51     6.01     8.02 1.00     3487     2646

Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).
plot(fit1, pars = "simo")

plot(conditional_effects(fit1))

The distributions of the simplex parameter of income, as shown in the plot method, demonstrate that the largest difference (about 70% of the difference between minimum and maximum category) is between the first two categories.

Now, let’s compare of monotonic model with two common alternative models. (a) Assume income to be continuous:

dat$income_num <- as.numeric(dat$income)
fit2 <- brm(ls ~ income_num, data = dat)
summary(fit2)
 Family: gaussian 
  Links: mu = identity; sigma = identity 
Formula: ls ~ income_num 
   Data: dat (Number of observations: 100) 
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 2000; warmup = 1000; thin = 1;
         total post-warmup samples = 4000

Population-Level Effects: 
           Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
Intercept     20.13      2.16    15.98    24.38 1.00     4324     3234
income_num    15.71      0.85    14.10    17.36 1.00     4489     2646

Family Specific Parameters: 
      Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sigma     9.27      0.68     8.03    10.71 1.00     3469     2792

Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).

or (b) Assume income to be an unordered factor:

contrasts(dat$income) <- contr.treatment(4)
fit3 <- brm(ls ~ income, data = dat)
summary(fit3)
 Family: gaussian 
  Links: mu = identity; sigma = identity 
Formula: ls ~ income 
   Data: dat (Number of observations: 100) 
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 2000; warmup = 1000; thin = 1;
         total post-warmup samples = 4000

Population-Level Effects: 
          Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
Intercept    30.58      1.22    28.22    32.95 1.00     3361     2516
income2      29.27      1.89    25.52    32.98 1.00     3913     3271
income3      39.88      1.78    36.41    43.55 1.00     3822     3054
income4      44.94      2.09    40.81    48.96 1.00     3800     2735

Family Specific Parameters: 
      Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sigma     6.92      0.49     6.05     7.96 1.00     4518     3059

Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).

We can easily compare the fit of the three models using leave-one-out cross-validation.

loo(fit1, fit2, fit3)
Output of model 'fit1':

Computed from 4000 by 100 log-likelihood matrix

         Estimate   SE
elpd_loo   -337.4  7.4
p_loo         4.9  0.9
looic       674.8 14.8
------
Monte Carlo SE of elpd_loo is 0.0.

All Pareto k estimates are good (k < 0.5).
See help('pareto-k-diagnostic') for details.

Output of model 'fit2':

Computed from 4000 by 100 log-likelihood matrix

         Estimate   SE
elpd_loo   -365.5  7.0
p_loo         2.9  0.6
looic       730.9 14.0
------
Monte Carlo SE of elpd_loo is 0.0.

All Pareto k estimates are good (k < 0.5).
See help('pareto-k-diagnostic') for details.

Output of model 'fit3':

Computed from 4000 by 100 log-likelihood matrix

         Estimate   SE
elpd_loo   -337.3  7.4
p_loo         4.8  0.8
looic       674.5 14.7
------
Monte Carlo SE of elpd_loo is 0.0.

All Pareto k estimates are good (k < 0.5).
See help('pareto-k-diagnostic') for details.

Model comparisons:
     elpd_diff se_diff
fit3   0.0       0.0  
fit1  -0.1       0.1  
fit2 -28.2       6.0  

The monotonic model fits better than the continuous model, which is not surprising given that the relationship between income and ls is non-linear. The monotonic and the unordered factor model have almost identical fit in this example, but this may not be the case for other data sets.

Setting Prior Distributions

In the previous monotonic model, we have implicitly assumed that all differences between adjacent categories were a-priori the same, or formulated correctly, had the same prior distribution. In the following, we want to show how to change this assumption. The canonical prior distribution of a simplex parameter is the Dirichlet distribution, a multivariate generalization of the beta distribution. It is non-zero for all valid simplexes (i.e., \(\zeta_i \in [0,1]\) and \(\sum_{i = 1}^D \zeta_i = 1\)) and zero otherwise. The Dirichlet prior has a single parameter \(\alpha\) of the same length as \(\zeta\). The higher \(\alpha_i\) the higher the a-priori probability of higher values of \(\zeta_i\). Suppose that, before looking at the data, we expected that the same amount of additional money matters more for people who generally have less money. This translates into a higher a-priori values of \(\zeta_1\) (difference between ‘below_20’ and ‘20_to_40’) and hence into higher values of \(\alpha_1\). We choose \(\alpha_1 = 2\) and \(\alpha_2 = \alpha_3 = 1\), the latter being the default value of \(\alpha\). To fit the model we write:

prior4 <- prior(dirichlet(c(2, 1, 1)), class = "simo", coef = "moincome1")
fit4 <- brm(ls ~ mo(income), data = dat,
            prior = prior4, sample_prior = TRUE)

The 1 at the end of "moincome1" may appear strange when first working with monotonic effects. However, it is necessary as one monotonic term may be associated with multiple simplex parameters, if interactions of multiple monotonic variables are included in the model.

summary(fit4)
 Family: gaussian 
  Links: mu = identity; sigma = identity 
Formula: ls ~ mo(income) 
   Data: dat (Number of observations: 100) 
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 2000; warmup = 1000; thin = 1;
         total post-warmup samples = 4000

Population-Level Effects: 
          Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
Intercept    30.79      1.28    28.38    33.30 1.00     2872     2268
moincome     14.86      0.70    13.50    16.23 1.00     2658     2657

Simplex Parameters: 
             Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
moincome1[1]     0.65      0.04     0.57     0.74 1.00     2945     2366
moincome1[2]     0.24      0.04     0.15     0.32 1.00     4087     2669
moincome1[3]     0.11      0.04     0.03     0.19 1.00     2543     1553

Family Specific Parameters: 
      Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sigma     6.93      0.51     6.03     8.04 1.00     2852     2168

Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).

We have used sample_prior = TRUE to also obtain samples from the prior distribution of simo_moincome1 so that we can visualized it.

plot(fit4, pars = "prior_simo", N = 3)

As is visible in the plots, simo_moincome1[1] was a-priori on average twice as high as simo_moincome1[2] and simo_moincome1[3] as a result of setting \(\alpha_1\) to 2.

Modeling interactions of monotonic variables

Suppose, we have additionally asked participants for their age.

dat$age <- rnorm(100, mean = 40, sd = 10)

We are not only interested in the main effect of age but also in the interaction of income and age. Interactions with monotonic variables can be specified in the usual way using the * operator:

fit5 <- brm(ls ~ mo(income)*age, data = dat)
summary(fit5)
 Family: gaussian 
  Links: mu = identity; sigma = identity 
Formula: ls ~ mo(income) * age 
   Data: dat (Number of observations: 100) 
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 2000; warmup = 1000; thin = 1;
         total post-warmup samples = 4000

Population-Level Effects: 
             Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
Intercept       32.50      4.37    23.94    41.13 1.00     1337     2109
age             -0.04      0.10    -0.25     0.16 1.00     1287     1796
moincome        14.39      2.69     9.43    19.93 1.00      853     1167
moincome:age     0.01      0.07    -0.12     0.13 1.00      864     1174

Simplex Parameters: 
                 Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
moincome1[1]         0.64      0.07     0.49     0.79 1.00     1229     1441
moincome1[2]         0.24      0.06     0.12     0.37 1.00     2135     1461
moincome1[3]         0.11      0.06     0.01     0.25 1.00     1397     1524
moincome:age1[1]     0.38      0.25     0.02     0.87 1.00     1332     1997
moincome:age1[2]     0.31      0.23     0.01     0.83 1.00     2066     2388
moincome:age1[3]     0.32      0.22     0.01     0.81 1.00     2446     2419

Family Specific Parameters: 
      Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sigma     6.98      0.52     6.06     8.08 1.00     2717     2668

Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).
conditional_effects(fit5, "income:age")

Modelling Monotonic Group-Level Effects

Suppose that the 100 people in our sample data were drawn from 10 different cities; 10 people per city. Thus, we add an identifier for city to the data and add some city-related variation to ls.

dat$city <- rep(1:10, each = 10)
var_city <- rnorm(10, sd = 10)
dat$ls <- dat$ls + var_city[dat$city]

With the following code, we fit a multilevel model assuming the intercept and the effect of income to vary by city:

fit6 <- brm(ls ~ mo(income)*age + (mo(income) | city), data = dat)
summary(fit6)
 Family: gaussian 
  Links: mu = identity; sigma = identity 
Formula: ls ~ mo(income) * age + (mo(income) | city) 
   Data: dat (Number of observations: 100) 
Samples: 4 chains, each with iter = 2000; warmup = 1000; thin = 1;
         total post-warmup samples = 4000

Group-Level Effects: 
~city (Number of levels: 10) 
                        Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sd(Intercept)              15.40      4.37     9.17    26.09 1.00     1674     2403
sd(moincome)                1.37      0.97     0.08     3.70 1.00     1803     2654
cor(Intercept,moincome)     0.20      0.49    -0.80     0.95 1.00     2774     2514

Population-Level Effects: 
             Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
Intercept       30.64      7.27    16.27    44.89 1.00     1001     1475
age              0.00      0.12    -0.25     0.23 1.00     1312     1325
moincome        15.61      2.96     9.88    21.53 1.00      964     1160
moincome:age    -0.02      0.07    -0.16     0.12 1.00      970     1267

Simplex Parameters: 
                 Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
moincome1[1]         0.62      0.08     0.46     0.76 1.00     1476     1896
moincome1[2]         0.28      0.07     0.15     0.42 1.00     2452     2100
moincome1[3]         0.10      0.06     0.01     0.24 1.00     1743     1466
moincome:age1[1]     0.32      0.25     0.01     0.86 1.00     1947     2267
moincome:age1[2]     0.37      0.25     0.01     0.87 1.00     2600     2928
moincome:age1[3]     0.31      0.23     0.01     0.81 1.00     3474     2928

Family Specific Parameters: 
      Estimate Est.Error l-95% CI u-95% CI Rhat Bulk_ESS Tail_ESS
sigma     6.75      0.57     5.75     7.98 1.00     4174     2662

Samples were drawn using sampling(NUTS). For each parameter, Bulk_ESS
and Tail_ESS are effective sample size measures, and Rhat is the potential
scale reduction factor on split chains (at convergence, Rhat = 1).

reveals that the effect of income varies only little across cities. For the present data, this is not overly surprising given that, in the data simulations, we assumed income to have the same effect across cities.

References

Bürkner P. C. & Charpentier, E. (in review). Monotonic Effects: A Principled Approach for Including Ordinal Predictors in Regression Models. PsyArXiv preprint.