Functions in this package serve the purpose of solving for \(\boldsymbol{x}\) in \(\boldsymbol{Ax=b}\), where \(\boldsymbol{A}\) is a \(n \times n\) symmetric and positive definite matrix, \(\boldsymbol{b}\) is a \(n \times 1\) column vector.

To improve scalability of conjugate gradient methods for larger matrices, the C++ Armadillo templated linear algebra library is used for the implementation. The package also provides flexibility to have user-specified preconditioner options to cater for different optimization needs.

This vignette will walk through some simple examples for using main functions in the package.

`cgsolve()`

: Conjugate gradient methodThe idea of conjugate gradient method is to find a set of mutually conjugate directions for the unconstrained problem \[\arg \min_x f(x)\] where \(f(x) = 0.5 y^T \Sigma y - yx + z\) and \(z\) is a constant. The problem is equivalent to solving \(\Sigma x = y\).

This function implements an iterative procedure to reduce the number of matrix-vector multiplications. The conjugate gradient method improves memory efficiency and computational complexity, especially when \(\Sigma\) is relatively sparse.

**Example**: Solve \(Ax = b\) where $A = \begin{bmatrix}
4 & 1 \
1 & 3
\end{bmatrix}$, $b = \begin{bmatrix}
1 \
2
\end{bmatrix}$.

```
test_A <- matrix(c(4,1,1,3), ncol = 2)
test_b <- matrix(1:2, ncol = 1)
cgsolve(test_A, test_b, 1e-6, 1000)
```

`pcgsolve()`

: Preconditioned conjugate gradient methodWhen the condition number for \(\Sigma\) is large, the conjugate gradient (CG) method may fail to converge in a reasonable number of iterations. The Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) Method applies a precondition matrix \(C\) and approaches the problem by solving: \[C^{-1} \Sigma x = C^{-1} y\] where the symmetric and positive-definite matrix \(C\) approximates \(\Sigma\) and \(C^{-1} \Sigma\) improves the condition number of \(\Sigma\).

Choices for the preconditioner include: Jacobi preconditioning (`Jacobi`

), symmetric successive over-relaxation (`SSOR`

), and incomplete Cholesky factorization (`ICC`

).

**Example revisited**: Now we solve the same problem using incomplete Cholesky factorization of \(A\) as preconditioner.

```
test_A <- matrix(c(4,1,1,3), ncol = 2)
test_b <- matrix(1:2, ncol = 1)
pcgsolve(test_A, test_b, "ICC")
```

*Check Github repo and cPCG: Efficient and Customized Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Method for more information.*