COVID19.Analytics

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Introduction

The “covid19.analytics” R package allows users to obtain live* worldwide data from the novel CoronaVirus Disease originally reported in 2019, CoViD-19, as published by the JHU CCSE repository [1], as well as, provide basic analysis tools and functions to investigate these datasets.

The goal of this package is to make the latest data promptly available to researchers and the scientific community.

argument description
aggregated latest number of cases aggregated by country
Time Series data
ts-confirmed time series data of confirmed cases
ts-deaths time series data of fatal cases
ts-recovered time series data of recovered cases
ts-ALL all time series data combined
Deprecated data formats
ts-dep-confirmed time series data of confirmed cases as originally reported (deprecated)
ts-dep-deaths time series data of deaths as originally reported (deprecated)
ts-dep-recovered time series data of recovered cases as originally reported (deprecated)
Combined
ALL all of the above
Time Series data for specific locations
ts-Toronto time series data of confirmed cases for the city of Toronto, ON - Canada
ts-confirmed-US time series data of confirmed cases for the US detailed per state
ts-deaths-US time series data of fatal cases for the US detailed per state

Data Structure

The TimeSeries data is organized in an specific manner with a given set of fields or columns, which resembles the following structure:

“Province.State” “Country.Region” “Lat” “Long” seq of dates

Using your own data and/or importing new data sets

If you have data structured in a data.frame organized as described above, then most of the functions provided by the “covid19.analytics” package for analyzing TimeSeries data will work with your data. In this way it is possible to add new data sets to the ones that can be loaded using the repositories predefined in this package and extend the analysis capabilities to these new datasets.

Be sure also to check the compatibility of these datasets using the Data Integrity and Consistency Checks functions described in the following section.

Data Integrity and Consistency Checks

Due to the ongoing and rapid changing situation with the CoViD-19 pandemic, sometimes the reported data has been detected to change its internal format or even show some “anomalies” or “inconsistencies” (see https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVID-19/issues/).

For instance, in some cumulative quantities reported in time series datasets, it has been observed that these quantities instead of continuously increase sometimes they decrease their values which is something that should not happen, (see for instance, https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVID-19/issues/2165). We refer to this as inconsistency of “type II”.

Some negative values have been reported as well in the data, which also is not possible or valid; we call this inconsistency of “type I”.

When this occurs, it happens at the level of the origin of the dataset, in our case, the one obtained from the JHU/CCESGIS repository [1]. In order to make the user aware of this, we implemented two consistency and integrity checking functions:

Alternatively we provide a data.checks() function that will run both functions on an specified dataset.

Data Integrity

It is highly unlikely that you would face a situation where the internal structure of the data, or its actual integrity may be compromised but if you think that this is the case or the integrity.check() function reports this, please we urge you to contact the developer of this package (https://github.com/mponce0/covid19.analytics/issues).

Data Consistency

Data consistency issues and/or anomalies in the data have been reported several times, see https://github.com/CSSEGISandData/COVID-19/issues/. These are claimed, in most of the cases, to be missreported data and usually are just an insignificant number of the total cases. Having said that, we believe that the user should be aware of these situations and we recommend using the consistency.check() function to verify the dataset you will be working with.

covid19-Sequencing data

The covid19.genomic.data() allows users to obtain the covid19's genomic sequencing data from NCBI [3].

Analytical & Graphical Indicators

In addition to the access and retrieval of the data, the package includes some basics functions to estimate totals per regions/country/cities, growth rates and daily changes in the reported number of cases.

Overview of the Main Functions from the “covid19.analytics” Package

Function Description Main Type of Output
Data Acquisition
covid19.data obtain live* worldwide data for covid19 virus, from the JHU’s CCSE repository [1] return dataframes/list with the collected data
covid19.Toronto.data obtain live* data for covid19 cases in the city of Toronto, ON Canada, from the City of Toronto reports [2] return dataframe/list with the collected data
covid19.US.data obtain live* US specific data for covid19 virus, from the JHU’s CCSE repository [1] return dataframe with the collected data
covid19.genomic.data obtain covid19’s genomic sequencing data from NCBI [3] list, with the RNA seq data in the "$NC_045512.2" entry
Data Quality Assessment
data.checks run integrity and consistency checks on a given dataset diagnostics about the dataset integrity and consistency
consistency.check run consistency checks on a given dataset diagnostics about the dataset consistency
integrity.check run integrity checks on a given dataset diagnostics about the dataset integrity
Analysis
report.summary summarize the current situation, will download the latest data and summarize different quantities on screen table and static plots (pie and bar plots) with reported information, can also output the tables into a text file
tots.per.location compute totals per region and plot time series for that specific region/country static plots: data + models (exp/linear, Poisson, Gamma), mosaic and histograms when more than one location are selected
growth.rate compute changes and growth rates per region and plot time series for that specific region/country static plots: data + models (linear,Poisson,Exp), mosaic and histograms when more than one location are selected
single.trend
mtrends
visualize different indicators of the “trends” in daily changes for a single or mutliple locations compose of static plots: total number of cases vs time, daily changes vs total changes in different representations
Graphics and Visualization
total.plts plots in a static and interactive plot total number of cases per day, the user can specify multiple locations or global totoals static and interactive plot
itrends generates an interactive plot of daily changes vs total changes in a log-log plot, for the indicated regions interactive plot
live.map generates an interactive map displaying cases around the world static and interactive plot
Modelling
generate.SIR.model generates a SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) model list containing the fits for the SIR model
plt.SIR.model plot the results from the SIR model static and interactive plots

Details and Specifications of the Analytical & Visualization Functions

Reports

The report.summary() generates an overall report summarizing the different datasets. It can summarize the “Time Series” data (cases.to.process="TS"), the “aggregated” data (cases.to.process="AGG") or both (cases.to.process="ALL"). It will display the top 10 entries in each category, or the number indicated in the Nentries argument, for displaying all the records set Nentries=0.

The function can also target specific geographical location(s) using the geo.loc argument. When a geographical location is indicated, the report will include an additional “Rel.Perc” column for the confirmed cases indicating the relative percentage among the locations indicated. Similarly the totals displayed at the end of the report will be for the selected locations.

In each case (“TS” or/and “AGG”) will present tables ordered by the different cases included, i.e. confirmed infected, deaths, recovered and active cases.

The dates when the report is generated and the date of the recorded data will be included at the beginning of each table.

It will also compute the totals, averages, standard deviations and percentages of various quantities:

Typical structure of a summary.report() output for the Time Series data:

################################################################################ 
  ##### TS-CONFIRMED Cases  -- Data dated:  2020-04-12  ::  2020-04-13 12:02:27 
################################################################################ 
  Number of Countries/Regions reported:  185 
  Number of Cities/Provinces reported:  83 
  Unique number of geographical locations combined: 264 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  Worldwide  ts-confirmed  Totals: 1846679 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
   Country.Region Province.State Totals GlobalPerc LastDayChange   t-2   t-3   t-7  t-14 t-30
1              US                555313      30.07         28917 29861 35098 29595 20922  548
2           Spain                166831       9.03          3804  4754  5051  5029  7846 1159
3           Italy                156363       8.47          4092  4694  3951  3599  4050 3497
4          France                132591       7.18          2937  4785  7120  5171  4376  808
5         Germany                127854       6.92          2946  2737  3990  3251  4790  910
.
.
.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
  Global Perc. Average:  0.38 (sd: 2.13) 
  Global Perc. Average in top  10 :  7.85 (sd: 8.18) 
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

******************************************************************************** 
********************************  OVERALL SUMMARY******************************** 
******************************************************************************** 
  ****  Time Series TOTS **** 
     ts-confirmed    ts-deaths   ts-recovered 
     1846679          114091        421722 
                        6.18%          22.84% 
  ****  Time Series AVGS **** 
     ts-confirmed    ts-deaths   ts-recovered 
     6995            432.16     1686.89 
                         6.18%         24.12% 
  ****  Time Series SDS **** 
     ts-confirmed    ts-deaths   ts-recovered 
     39320.05        2399.5     8088.55 
                         6.1%           20.57% 

 * Statistical estimators computed considering 250 independent reported entries 
******************************************************************************** 

Typical structure of a summary.report() output for the Aggregated data:

################################################################################################################################# 
  ##### AGGREGATED Data  -- ORDERED BY  CONFIRMED Cases  -- Data dated:  2020-04-12  ::  2020-04-13 12:02:29 
################################################################################################################################# 
  Number of Countries/Regions reported: 185 
  Number of Cities/Provinces reported: 138 
  Unique number of geographical locations combined: 2989 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
                      Location Confirmed Perc.Confirmed Deaths Perc.Deaths Recovered Perc.Recovered Active Perc.Active
1                        Spain    166831           9.03  17209       10.32     62391          37.40  87231       52.29
2                        Italy    156363           8.47  19899       12.73     34211          21.88 102253       65.39
3                       France    132591           7.18  14393       10.86     27186          20.50  91012       68.64
4                      Germany    127854           6.92   3022        2.36     60300          47.16  64532       50.47
5  New York City, New York, US    103208           5.59   6898        6.68         0           0.00  96310       93.32
.
.
.
=================================================================================================================================
     Confirmed   Deaths   Recovered     Active 
  Totals 
     1846680     114090   421722        1310868 
  Average 
     617.83     38.17.      141.09      438.56 
  Standard Deviation 
     6426.31       613.69     2381.22     4272.19 

 * Statistical estimators computed considering 2989 independent reported entries

In both cases an overall summary of the reported cases is presented by the end, displaying totals, average and standard devitation of the computed quantities.

A full example of this report for today can be seen here

Dashboards