A variable and changing climate presents significant challenges to the performance of engineered systems across many sectors, such as municipal, environmental, agricultural, energy, mining, industrial and transport sectors. The systems are designed and expected to operate satisfactorily under a range of climates. However, it is critical to understand the conditions under which system performance might degrade so that alternative contingency measures can be put into place. A range of approaches have emerged in recent years to provide a vulnerability analysis for a system, including bottom-up approaches (Prudhomme et al. 2010), as well as decision-centric approaches that manage climate uncertainty (Brown 2011, Culley et al. 2016, McPhail et al. 2018). In general, a vulnerability analysis should aim to:
To achieve the above listed aims, this vignette presents a general framework developed from the climate impact assessment literature.
The framework in this vignette facilitates the following elements:
In doing so, the framework:
Decision-centric approaches can be tailored in the framework depending on whether a user interprets climate projections probabilistically (in which case approaches such as cost-benefit analyses and/or quantitative risk assessments may be appropriate) or as scenarios (in which case robustness approaches may be required).
The 'foreSIGHT' package demonstrated in this vignette is a tool to be used in many stages of a larger climate impact analysis. The main function of the package is to aid the development of scenario neutral spaces. Its core functionality is to create climate scenarios, and then simulate and visualise system performance. This functionality is useful at all stages for assessment from exploratory stages (where the goal is to understand relationships between climate and a system) to final stages (which require a final description of system vulnerbailites). The key functions and the process flow of the foreSIGHT package is shown in the figure below. Key function arguments are shown in italics, functions names are shown in bold, and orange boxes indicate modules in the process that can be swapped for alternatives to be used by the main process, shown in blue. The section of the vignette which elaborates on each of the stages is also indicated.
Section 4 describes the process of developing scenario neutral spaces, introducing the necessary arguments. First, you must specify the climate attributes you wish to change, and the attributes you wish to monitor but hold constant. Next, you detail how the attributes are changed using exSpargs. This will construct a list of target scenarios - time series of climate variables - that will be produced using the scenarioGenerator function.
Creating scenarios requires two modules, shown above in orange: a weather generator and an optimisation algorithm. This package includes a selection of weather generators but external models can be implemented instead. The same goes for the optimisation algorithm - this package incudes a genetic algorithm but others can be used in its place.
Section 5 describes another key functionality of the package, which is to visualise the exposure spaces. This requires system response to be attached to each scenario. This can be completed using an internal model using a wrapper function in R, or alternatively, the scenarios can be modelled with an external model and supplied as a response vector. The performance should then be mapped on to the exposure space to visualise the system response. This package supports many graphical options, including heatmaps, contour plots, as well as the control over the final visualisations such as plot titles, axis labels and legends. These settings are all controlled by the performanceSpaces function.
Section 6 describes the final stage of this process which is to add other layers of information to the plots. This typically involves climate change projections, which are mapped onto the response surface to examine how plausible the system vulnerabilities are. This information is added using the plotLayers function, which is descrbied along with the necessary arguments.
This package has a number of package dependencies. They should be installed on your computer before loading the foreSIGHT package:
The foreSIGHT package can then be installed from a local zip file. If using RStudio, look for 'Install Packages' option on the 'Tools' menu and select 'Package Archive File'. If using the standard R graphical interface, look for 'Install packages from local files' from the 'Packages' menu. Alternatively, the command below can be used. Make sure to give the full path to the file:
You can then load the package with the following command:
The package will generate a large amount of output files and diagnostic plots. It is recommended to have a dedicated working directory. This directory should be created in Windows Explorer, and then be pointed to from inside R with the following command:
To demonstrate the package's functionality, an example system model and accompanying dataset called 'tank' are used. 'Tank' is a domestic rainwater tank model with enough complexity to highlight key features of the package. The dataset and model can be loaded from the package at any time using the data command:
data(tankDat) #load data -this contains tank_obs for this example
The tank model simulates a domestic rainwater tank system, which can be used for both indoor (grey water) applications and garden irrigation. Rain falling on the roof of the house is captured and directed towards the rainwater tank. Before the rainwater is able to enter the tank the first flush is removed from the start of each storm. This removed amount equates to the first millimetre of water falling on the roof and is required for water quality reasons (this can also be varied). The water remaining after the first flush extraction flows into the rainwater tank. Water demand is assumed to be constant throughout the year for indoor use, and vary seasonally for outdoor use. The amount of water supplied by the tank depends on the current water level in the tank calculated at a daily time step.
The outdoor seasonal demand pattern responds to the daily temperature (i.e. on hot days, above 28oC, the gardener waters more than the seasonal average, but on cool days , below 10oC, the gardener waters less than the seasonal average). The tank model simulates each stage of the rainwater capture and use process based on the supplied daily rainfall and temperature time series. The size of both the tank and roof can be varied in the model. Performance is measured according to four metrics:
This example model provides sufficient scope for investigation. This is because the tank responds to multiple climate drivers (i.e. rainfall and temperature), and the removal of the first flush volume at the start of the storm means that the wet-dry pattern of the rainfall and the seasonality of the demand pattern may become important.
A function call to the tank model is shown below. The call returns the system performance which is stored in the object 'performance'. How to use your system model in conjunction with the package will be discussed later.
#Example data(tankDat) #load data -this contains tank_obs for this example systemArgs<-list(roofArea=50, # roof area in m2 nPeople=1, # number of people using water tankVol=3000, # tank volume in L firstFlush=1, # depth of water on roof removed each event in mm write.file=FALSE, # write output tank timeseries to file T/F? fnam="tankperformance.csv", # name of file metric="reliability") # performance metric chosen for reporting performanceOut=tankWrapper(data=tank_obs,systemArgs=systemArgs) performanceOut #display performance = 0.6882015
##  0.6884752
#Now try a different metric e.g. volumetric reliability (volRel) systemArgs<-list(roofArea=50, # roof area in m2 nPeople=1, # number of people using water tankVol=3000, # tank volume in L firstFlush=1, write.file=FALSE, # write output tank timeseries to file T/F? fnam="tankperformance.csv", # name of file metric="volRel") # performance metric reported performanceOut=tankWrapper(data=tank_obs,systemArgs=systemArgs) performanceOut #display performance = 0.4399819
##  0.4380711
Now that we have a system model we can start 'stress-testing' the system's performance under a range of plausible climate scenarios using the scenario-neutral approach.
##2.1 Developing a scenario neutral approach
The scenario-neutral approach proceeds by first generating an exposure space. This exposure space is composed of target values (attribute combinations) that are of interest. Each target location is a set of climate variable time series (e.g. temperature and rainfall). Each of these sets of climate variable time series are then run through the system model and the resulting performance stored in a performance space. A schematic diagram of the process of generating a performance space is shown below. The procedure follows the three panels:
Over the course of this vignette tutorial you will learn to produce an exposure space, apply it to a system model and produce a performance space.
##2.2 Evalating performance spaces
Once you are comfortable producing performance spaces it is possible to evaluate and compare different system configurations. For example, it is possible to compare different tank sizes for the same property, or compare different contributing roof areas feeding into the same size tank. The figure below illustrates comparison of two performance spaces (contributing roof area of 100 and 110 m2) to show the impact that roof area has on the reliability of the tank across a range of potential climates. A set of climate projections for the region has been overlain in black. Comparing the contour lines of the reliability performance metric, it is clear that the 10% increase in the contributing roof area increases reliability across the space. Comparing the orientation of the contours, it is clear that the each system (100 and 110 m2) responds to changes in climate in a similar way (e.g. the system is still more sensitive to changes in annual total rainfall than annual average temperature).
The above exposure space plots for the case study are made from the three main functions of the package; scenarioGenerator, performanceSpaces and plotLayers. The use of these three components can be automated with the quickSpace function.
As the quickSpace function is designed to automate the process, there is only a minimum level of control over the spaces. If more control and customisation over the spaces is needed then each individual function can instead be called separately. quickSpace has many of the arguments set to default values, leaving only a minimum specification of information needed to get started:
This function can be used in the following way:
data(tankDat) data(climdata2030) #Inputs for quickSpace modelTag <- "Simple-ann" # Model used to generate scenarios attPerturb <- c("P_ann_tot_m","Temp_ann_avg_m") # Attributes to perturb exSpArgs <- list(type = "regGrid", # Sets out how space is sampled samp = c(5,5), bounds = list("P_ann_tot_m"=c(0.8,1.2), "Temp_ann_avg_m"=c(-2,2))) #Inputs for system model systemArgs<-list(roofArea=100, nPeople=1, tankVol=2000, firstFlush=1, write.file=F, metric="reliability") #Plot arguments plotArgs<-list(title="Roof area 100 m2", performancelimits=c(0.705, 0.78), ylim=c(0.8,1.20), xtitle="Temp_ann_avg_m", #Specify axes (missing these will cause a plot error) ytitle="P_ann_tot_m") p1<-quickSpace(obs=tank_obs, attPerturb=attPerturb, exSpArgs=exSpArgs, systemModel = tankWrapper, systemArgs = systemArgs, plotArgs=plotArgs, climdata = climdata) p1
This plot is a recreation of the left panel in the above example. Changing the roofArea argument to 110 and using the code again would create the panel on the right.
This section introduces the scenarioGenerator function, which is used to take a historical climate record and perturb it to have particular characteristics for 'stress-testing'. These characteristics of the climate variable time series are termed attributes. The scenarioGenerator function requires a number of arguments to specify which attributes should be perturbed and which should be held constant, the combinations of which create a list of target scenarios that together, build an exposure space. Section 3.1 explains these arguments, and Section 3.2 details the options for creating the target scenarios.
Each call of the scenarioGenerator function begins by calculating attributes on provided historical data. These values are used as a baseline for further scenario creation. There are two arguments that are used to specify which attributes should be calculated, and which one you should use depends on intended design of the exposure space.
attPerturb is used to specify climate attributes you wish to change in some way. These will typically become axes on an exposure space, as they will in turn show change in system response.
attHold is used to specify attributes you wish to examine, but do not wish to apply changes to. Attributes shouldn't be specified in both categories, they belong in one or the other.
exSpArgs is then used to specify the size of the exposure space. For each attribute in attPerturb, the range you wish to change the attribute over, and the number of samples, needs to be explained. exSpArgs contains three arguments itself to do this; bounds, samp and type.
The bounds argument is used to set an axis range for each attribute. Its format is therefore required to be a list, with every attribute in attPerturb given bounds explicitly. For temperature you need to specify the change in degrees; however, for rainfall or potential evapotranspiration changes should be specified as fractions of the historical climate attribute value.
The samp argument specifies the number of samples to take inside the bound range, inclusive of the limits themselves (see above example).
The type argument sets the type of exposure space constructed from the perturbations, with two currently supported options: one at a time (oat) and regular grid (regGrid).
For large spaces with many scenarios, it is important to make sure the right space is specified before executing the scenarioGenerator function. For use in a quick check, the exSpArgsVisual function was developed. It can be used to quickly check the range and resolution of a requested 2D regGrid space. For example, the below exSpArgs argument would produce the following space:
exSpArgs=list(type="regGrid", samp=c(5,7), bounds=list(P_ann_tot_m=c(0.7,1.3), Temp_ann_avg_m=c(-3,3))) exSpArgsVisual(exSpArgs=exSpArgs)
With the correct attributes and exposure space specified, the scenarios can then be created as described in the following section.
This package provides two techniques for creating exposure spaces: simple scaling and stochastic simulation (inverse approach). Simple scaling applies an additive or multiplicative change to the historical time series to create perturbed time series, whereas stochastic simulation (inverse approach) uses a stochastic weather generator to produce perturbed time series with the required characteristics for 'stress-testing'. The production of perturbed time series via simple scaling and stochastic simulation (inverse approach) are introduced separately.
Simple scaling applies an additive or multiplicative change to the historical time series to create perturbed time series. As a result simple scaling is limited in the variety of attributes it can perturb. This is due to the scenario creation method which relies on the historical time series pattern. Therefore simple scaling cannot be used to implement certain changes to the time series. For example, by applying a multiplicative change to a rainfall time series the overall wet-dry pattern (e.g. wet-spell duration, number of wet days) will not change. The maintenance of the overall rainfall time-series pattern is illustrated below by comparing two different scenarios created with this technique, one with 10% less rainfall in the year and the other with 10% more. Additionally, as the same change is applied to all days of the time series it is not possible to evaluate what would happen if only certain parts of the rainfall distribution where to change (e.g. if the rainfall intensity on extreme days became more extreme).
Due to the inability of simple scaling to change the underlying pattern in the historical time series, only a few attributes can be selected for perturbation in the package. The attributes that can be created by simple scaling are:
Consider an exposure space generated for both temperature and precipitation. For this test you wish to vary temperature from -1oC to 4oC in 1oC increments, and precipitation from 90% of historical average through to 150% of historical average in 10% increments, as illustrated below.
To generate this space you would set up a call like the following.
data(tankDat) #Scenario generation arguments modelTag="Simple-ann" attPerturb<-c("P_ann_tot_m","Temp_ann_avg_m") exSpArgs<-list(type = "regGrid", samp = c(7,6), bounds = list("P_ann_tot_m"=c(0.9,1.5), "Temp_ann_avg_m"=c(-1,4))) #Function call out<-scenarioGenerator(obs=tank_obs, modelTag = modelTag, attPerturb=attPerturb, exSpArgs = exSpArgs, simDirectory="Simulation1", IOmode="verbose")
As shown above a simple scaled exposure space can be created using four arguments in the scenarioGenerator function. Each of the scenarioGenerator arguments will now be explained in turn.
The first argument is the historical data, obs, which needs to be prepared in a specific data frame format (see below). The dates need to be separated into three columns: year, month, day. After the date columns the climate data can be entered in any order, but with the headings P, Temp or PET as appropriate. An example of an appropriately set up data frame is shown below.
## year month day P Temp ## 1 2007 1 1 0.0 25.50 ## 2 2007 1 2 0.0 24.50 ## 3 2007 1 3 0.0 29.75 ## 4 2007 1 4 0.0 32.25 ## 5 2007 1 5 0.0 32.50 ## 6 2007 1 6 4.5 26.50
The second argument is modelTag. This argument dictates which weather generator blocks will be used. For simple scaling cases, modelTag must be set to “Simple-ann”. The argument simDirectory can be used to specify a folder, created in the current working directory, that will collate all the simulation outputs.
Finally, attPerturb, attHold and exSpArgs are used as described in Section 4.1.
This function call generates a significant amount of output, storing the timeseries for each scenario in .csv and .Rdata formats if IOmode=“verbose”. After a simulation is completed, a folder will appear in your working directory with the title being the SimDirectory argument. If you are unsure, type getwd() to determine the working directory.
Inside this simDirectory folder will be folders for Logfiles, Plots, Scenarios and Metadata summaries. The perturbed time series produced using the scenarioGenerator function are outputted as both .CSV and RData files, which are both located in the Scenarios folder. Also in this folder is a list of output file names, to aid the process of simulating these with an external system model.
Stochastically generated perturbed time series are produced using an inverse approach (Guo et al., 2018) whereby the target location (the combination of attributes) are specified first and an optimisation approach is used to determine the parameters required to simulate that specified target using a stochastic model.
Creating scenarios using stochastic weather generators is useful in that one attribute of a time series can be changed, while still maintaining other attributes at historical levels. This property provides a powerful tool for creating exposure spaces that cover a wide range of plausible climate scenarios. This is a fundamental feature of the scenario-neutral approach. The approach can also be used to target specific changes to the rainfall pattern.
Additionally, by using a stochastic weather generator, the time series can be created with a length longer than historical data. Using the stochastic approach the system's performance can be evaluated over longer time periods - even under historical conditions. For example, below is a historical rainfall record compared to a stochastically generated rainfall series with the same attributes as the historical.
The attributes that can be selected for perturbation using the stochastic weather generation option in this package are listed below.
Consider an exposure space generated using stochastically simulated rainfall. For example, you would like to vary the annual total rainfall between 90% of the historical average through to 110% of the historical average in 10% increments. You would also like to vary the 99th^ percentile rainfall between 90% of the historical average through to 110% of the historical average in 10% increments. However, you want to keep the maximum dry spell duration at historical levels. To produce this exposure space you have decided to use a weather generator that has a constant set of parameters across the whole year.
To generate this space you would set up a call like the following.
data(tankDat) #Scenario generation arguments modelTag=c("P-ann-wgen") attPerturb<-c("P_ann_tot_m","P_ann_P99_m") # Attributes to perturb attHold<-c("P_ann_maxDSD_m") # Attributes to hold at historical levels exSpArgs<-list(type = "regGrid", samp = c(5,3), bounds = list("P_ann_tot_m"=c(0.9,1.1), "P_ann_P99_m"=c(0.9,1.1))) #Function call out<-scenarioGenerator(obs=tank_obs, modelTag = modelTag, attPerturb=attPerturb, attHold=attHold, exSpArgs = exSpArgs, simDirectory="Simulation2") #Note: will take ~2 minutes to complete
As shown above the stochastic exposure space is generated using the same function, scenarioGenerator. But this call to the scenarioGenerator function requires a little more instruction and so has five arguments.
exSpArgs is constructed the same way as in the simple scaling demonstration. attPerturb is still indicating the attributes that will become exposure space axes. However, modelTag is now used to specify the annual weather generator (“P-ann-wgen”). Another change to note is the addition of attHold, which is included here but not in the simple scaling case. With stochastic scaling there are more available changes to the climate that can be targeted at once, but also, there is now a need to specify more attributes that should be kept at historical levels.
As the pattern is no longer fixed, there are many attributes of the time series that can change freely, unless specified as a part of the target. For example, a rainfall time series has many inherent attributes - 99th^ percentile daily rainfall (P99), 95th^ percentile daily rainfall (P95), average daily rainfall (Pavg), maximum dry-spell duration (maxDSD), maximum 5-day rainfall totals (Rx5) and many more (see figure below). So if you are stochastically generating rainfall and only specify a change in annual average rainfall many other attributes may also change as a result. Your system model might be sensitive to changes in some of these attributes so the choice of attributes (to both perturb or hold constant at historical levels) needs to be considered carefully. Later on we will look at ways to evaluate how sensitive your system is to different attributes (Section 220.127.116.11).
A stochastic simulation provides more outputs than a simple scaling simulation, as there are additional metadata summaries and also diagnostics of the model performance. To investigate how the perturbed climate time series look you can check the metrics diagnostic PDF file created for each target, all located in the Diagnostics folder inside your simDirectory folder. Each file is labelled using the target location. For example, 1Panntotm_0.9PJJAdyAllm_1PannP99m.pdf is the summary file for the target set at historical levels for annual total rainfall and 99th percentile daily rainfall amounts and 90% of the historical average daily rainfall in June-July-August.
The generated diagnostic plots include:
The first page of the diagnostics file summarises the model run so that a clear record of the simulation arguments is attached to the diagnostics (e.g. attributes, primary attributes, model selected). The second page presents a traffic light report card that provides a quick visual summary of how close the stochastic simulation has got to the requested target location. An example of the traffic light report card is shown below. Green indicates 'good' performance (e.g. between +/- 5% difference from target), yellow indicates 'fair' performance (e.g. greater than +/- 5% difference from target but less than +/- 10% difference from target), and red indicates 'poor' performance (e.g. greater than +/- 10% difference from target).
The remaining pages of the diagnostics file show a comparison of the simulated time series at different aggregations compared to the historical climate. This enables you to visually determine whether an unexpected change in the time series characteristics has occurred. For example, a comparison the simulated monthly total rainfall for a selected target against observed levels is shown below.