There are some other, smaller additions in ggh4x that aren’t really covered in the other vignettes.
One colour scale is sometimes not enough to describe your data. You
can map several variables to colours with
scale_colour_multi() if data are in separate layers. It
scale_colour_gradientn(), but you can declare
the aesthetics to and provide other arguments in a vectorised way,
parallel to the
aesthetics argument. In the example below,
list() of colours is given, where the 1 list elements
becomes the argument of the first scale, the 2nd list element goes to
the second scale and so on. Other arguments that expect input of length
one can be given as a vector.
# Separating layers by species and declaring (yet) unknown aesthetics <- ggplot(iris, aes(Sepal.Width, Sepal.Length)) + g geom_point(aes(swidth = Sepal.Width), data = ~ subset(., Species == "setosa")) + geom_point(aes(pleng = Petal.Length), data = ~ subset(., Species == "versicolor")) + geom_point(aes(pwidth = Petal.Width), data = ~ subset(., Species == "virginica")) + facet_wrap(~ Species, scales = "free_x") #> Warning in geom_point(aes(swidth = Sepal.Width), data = ~subset(., Species == : #> Ignoring unknown aesthetics: swidth #> Warning in geom_point(aes(pleng = Petal.Length), data = ~subset(., Species == : #> Ignoring unknown aesthetics: pleng #> Warning in geom_point(aes(pwidth = Petal.Width), data = ~subset(., Species == : #> Ignoring unknown aesthetics: pwidth # This generated quite some warnings, but this is no reason to worry! + scale_colour_multi( g aesthetics = c("swidth", "pleng", "pwidth"), # Providing colours as a list distributes list-elements over different scales colours = list(c("black", "green"), c("gray", "red"), c("white", "blue")), guide = list(guide_colourbar(barheight = unit(35, "pt"))) )
You can combine continuous and discrete colour scales with the
slightly more verbose
scale_listed(). We can illustrate
this with a heatmap, wherein we maybe want to use a discrete fill for
some annotation, but a continuous fill for the heatmap values. The
example below also includes
conveniently can annotate heatmaps in the margin of a plot.
We can provide the correct fill scales as a list, as long as we match up the new aesthetics in the scales themselves and declare which old aesthetic they are to replace.
# Reshaping the iris dataset for heatmap purposes <- cor(t(iris[, 1:4])) iriscor <- data.frame( iriscor x = as.vector(row(iriscor)), y = as.vector(col(iriscor)), correlation = as.vector(iriscor) )<- transform(iris, id = seq_len(nrow(iris))) iris_df # Setting up the heatmap <- ggplot(iris_df, aes(id, id)) + g geom_tilemargin(aes(species = Species)) + geom_raster(aes(x, y, cor = correlation), data = iriscor) + coord_fixed() #> Warning in geom_tilemargin(aes(species = Species)): Ignoring unknown aesthetics: #> species #> Warning in geom_raster(aes(x, y, cor = correlation), data = iriscor): Ignoring #> unknown aesthetics: cor + scale_listed(scalelist = list( g scale_fill_distiller(palette = "RdBu", aesthetics = "cor"), scale_fill_brewer(palette = "Set1", aesthetics = "species") replaces = c("fill", "fill"))),
A simple but effective way to illustrate a straightforward mapping of
fill aesthetics, is to use coloured
text. In ggh4x, you can do this by setting
guide = "stringlegend" as argument to colour and fill
scales, or set
guides(colour = "stringlegend").
ggplot(diamonds, aes(price, carat, colour = clarity)) + geom_point(shape = ".") + scale_colour_brewer(palette = "Dark2", guide = "stringlegend")
These legends do not have any keys, so key-related options are absent
when you use
guide_stringlegend(). However, a few label
related options like
size have been added, as well as options to control the
spacing between the labels through
<- ggplot(mpg, aes(displ, hwy)) + p geom_point(aes(colour = class)) + guides(colour = guide_stringlegend(face = "bold", spacing = 15)) p + guides(colour = guide_stringlegend(spacing.x = 0, spacing.y = 5, p family = "mono", ncol = 2))
The return of the good old
type = 'b' plot from base R!
This geom makes point connected through a line that starts and ends a
small distance from the points themselves. Calculating these small
offsets in absolute coordinates instead of data coordinates means they
are stable at different aspect ratios.
set.seed(0) <- data.frame( df x = 1:10, y = cumsum(rnorm(10)) ) <- ggplot(pressure, aes(temperature, pressure)) + p geom_pointpath() + theme(aspect.ratio = 0.5) p + theme(aspect.ratio = 2)p
The size of the small offset can be controlled with the
mult multiplier argument, but is otherwise dependant on the
average of on the
linesize aesthetic for stroke size and
size aesthetic for point size. Also note that the
connecting lines disappear when points are spaced closely together.
ggplot(pressure, aes(temperature, pressure)) + geom_pointpath(linesize = 2, size = 2, mult = 1) #> Warning in geom_pointpath(linesize = 2, size = 2, mult = 1): Ignoring unknown #> parameters: `linesize`
An added bonus is that we can also use this point path in cartesian coordinates to get consistent curves.
+ coord_polar(theta = "y")p
When you want to do more with rasters than just displaying them, the
geom_raster() and related tile- and rect geoms can be a bit
inflexible. To allow transformations of rasters, there is
geom_polygonraster(), which reparametrises the raster into
y parametrised polygons. This is less
efficient than the regular raster, but more flexible. With
position_lineartrans() you can perform linear
transformations on the coordinates.
<- data.frame( df x = as.vector(row(volcano)), y = as.vector(col(volcano)), value = as.vector(volcano) ) <- ggplot(df, aes(x, y, fill = value)) + g scale_fill_viridis_c(guide = "none") + theme_void() + geom_polygonraster(position = position_lineartrans(shear = c(0.2, 0.2))) + g coord_fixed() + geom_polygonraster(position = position_lineartrans(angle = 45)) + g coord_fixed() + geom_polygonraster() + coord_polar()g
You might sometimes want to put text in a plot at a particular angle.
You might want to annotate something ‘away’ from something else, in
which case it can sometimes be a bit of a pain to calculate the correct
angle, only to conclude that after resizing the plot that the angle was
not correct. With
geom_text_aimed() the text is rotated by
an angle parallel to a line going from the text’s
coordinate through some point in
[xend,yend]. In the
example below, we ‘aim’ the text at the middle of the plot.
ggplot(transform(mtcars, car = rownames(mtcars)), aes(mpg, wt)) + geom_point(aes(colour = as.factor(cyl))) + geom_text_aimed(aes(label = car), hjust = -0.2, size = 3, xend = sum(range(mtcars$mpg)) / 2, yend = sum(range(mtcars$wt)) / 2) + coord_cartesian(clip = "off")
While the example above might be a bit silly, it might be easier to
show the usefulness when trying to annotate pieces of a polar
coordinates chart. Specifically for these kinds of charts, the default
[xend,yend] position is at
ggplot(mpg, aes(factor(1), fill = class)) + geom_bar(show.legend = FALSE, position = "fill") + geom_text_aimed(aes(x = 1.2, label = class, group = class), position = position_fill(vjust = 0.5), stat = "count") + coord_polar("y") + theme_void()
When specifying an angle in the geom, the calculated angle is added,
angle = 90 means that the text will become
perpendicular to the point defined in
ggplot(diamonds, aes(cut, fill = clarity)) + geom_bar(width = 1) + geom_text_aimed(aes(label = cut, group = cut), angle = 90, stat = "count", nudge_y = 2000) + scale_x_discrete(labels = NULL) + coord_polar() #> Warning: The following aesthetics were dropped during statistical transformation: fill #> ℹ This can happen when ggplot fails to infer the correct grouping structure in #> the data. #> ℹ Did you forget to specify a `group` aesthetic or to convert a numerical #> variable into a factor?
For some plots, we might be interested to have the plot’s axes
intersect some other value than the lowest limit. To place the axes
inside the plot panel, we can use
coord_axes_inside() will try to place the axes at
the origin at (0, 0) or the point nearest to the origin, if the origin
is not within the limits.
<- ggplot(mpg, aes(displ - mean(displ), hwy - mean(hwy))) + p geom_point() + theme(axis.line = element_line()) + coord_axes_inside()p
While for readability purposes, it makes sense to still place the
text labels outside the panel, you can also place the labels inside by
labels_inside = TRUE. In many cases, this can cause
some readability issues because the
"0" label at the origin
will intersect with the orthogonal axes. You can circumvent this issue
by purposefully excluding that particular label.
An additional nicety is that
actually use the guide system, so it can be combined with custom axis
+ coord_axes_inside(labels_inside = TRUE) + p scale_x_continuous( labels = ~ ifelse(.x == 0, "", .x), guide = "axis_minor" + ) scale_y_continuous( labels = ~ ifelse(.x == 0, "", .x), guide = "axis_truncated" )