This document contains the bibliography for published reports, journal articles, maps, and theses related to scientific monitoring and research conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),Idaho Water Science Center, Idaho National Laboratory Project Office (INLPO). The bibliography includes entries for 366 publications published during 1949 through 2022. Each entry contains the digital object identifier (DOI), title, name(s) of individual authors, a text representation of the reference to be employed for printing, a BibTeX entry for LaTeX users, and abstract. The entry may also include an annotation if no abstract is available. Hyperlinks to the ORCiD identifier and (or) email address may be located to the right of the authors name. The arrangement of the entries is by year of publication, in descending order, and subordinately by authors, in the alphabetical order of their names.


2022

Fisher

Title

inlpubs—Bibliographic information for the U.S. Geological Survey Idaho National Laboratory Project Office

Authors

Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Fisher, J.C., 2022, inlpubs—Bibliographic information for the U.S. Geological Survey Idaho National Laboratory Project Office: U.S. Geological Survey software release, R package, Reston, Va., https://doi.org/10.5066/P9I3GWWU.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{Fisher2022,
  title = {inlpubs---Bibliographic information for the U.S.
    Geological Survey Idaho National Laboratory Project
    Office},
  author = {Jason C. Fisher},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Software Release},
  year = {2022},
  note = {R package},
  address = {Reston, Va.},
  doi = {10.5066/P9I3GWWU},
}

Abstract

The R package inlpubs may be used to search and analyze 363 publications that cover the 73-year history of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho Water Science Center, Idaho National Laboratory Project Office (INLPO). The INLPO publications were authored by 251 researchers trying to better understand the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Information contained within these publications is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring, which began in 1949, were done in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (Bartholomay, 2017).

2021

Bartholomay and others

Title

Field methods, quality-assurance, and data management plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail, Amy J. WehnkeEmail, and Samuel L. HelmuthORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Bartholomay, R.C., Maimer, N.V., Wehnke, A.J., and Helmuth, S.L., 2021, Field methods, quality-assurance, and data management plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021-1004, 76 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211004.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{BartholomayOthers2021,
  title = {Field methods, quality-assurance, and data
    management plan for water-quality activities and water-
    level measurements, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Roy C. Bartholomay and Neil V. Maimer and Amy J.
    Wehnke and Samuel L. Helmuth},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Open-File Report},
  year = {2021},
  number = {2021--1004 (DOE/ID--22253)},
  pages = {76},
  doi = {10.3133/ofr20211004},
}

Abstract

Water-quality activities and water-level measurements conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals, and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and civic groups.

In its broadest sense, “quality assurance” refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

Fisher

Title

ObsNetQW—Assessment of a water-quality aquifer monitoring network

Authors

Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Fisher, J.C., 2021, ObsNetQW—Assessment of a water-quality aquifer monitoring network: U.S. Geological Survey software release, R package, Reston, Va., https://doi.org/10.5066/P9X71CSU.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{Fisher2021,
  title = {ObsNetQW---Assessment of a water-quality aquifer
    monitoring network},
  author = {Jason C. Fisher},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Software Release},
  year = {2021},
  note = {R package},
  address = {Reston, Va.},
  doi = {10.5066/P9X71CSU},
}

Abstract

The establishment of an efficient aquifer water-quality aquifer monitoring network is a critical component in the assessment and protection of groundwater quality. A periodic evaluation of the monitoring network is mandatory to ensure effective data collection and possible redesigning of existing network. This package assesses the efficacy and appropriateness of an existing water-quality aquifer monitoring network in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho.

Fisher and others

Title

Optimization of the Idaho National Laboratory water-quality aquifer monitoring network, southeastern Idaho

Authors

Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail, Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Gordon W. RattrayORCiDEmail, and Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Fisher, J.C., Bartholomay, R.C., Rattray, G.W., and Maimer, N.V., 2021, Optimization of the Idaho National Laboratory water-quality aquifer monitoring network, southeastern Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2021-5031 (DOE/ID-22252), 63 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20215031.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{FisherOthers2021,
  title = {Optimization of the Idaho National Laboratory
    water-quality aquifer monitoring network, southeastern
    Idaho},
  author = {Jason C. Fisher and Roy C. Bartholomay and
    Gordon W. Rattray and Neil V. Maimer},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2021},
  number = {2021--5031 (DOE/ID--22252)},
  pages = {63},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20215031},
}

Abstract

Long-term monitoring of water-quality data collected from wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have provided essential information for delineating the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, southeastern Idaho. Since 1949, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, has maintained as many as 200 wells in the INL water-quality monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to evaluate and optimize groundwater monitoring in the existing network based on water-quality data collected at 153 sampling sites since January 1, 1989. The objective of the optimization design tool is to reduce well monitoring redundancy while retaining sufficient data to reliably characterize water-quality conditions in the aquifer. A spatial optimization was used to identify a set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the deviation between interpolated concentration maps using the existing and reduced monitoring networks while preserving significant long-term trends and seasonal components in the data. Additionally, a temporal optimization was used to identify reductions in sampling frequencies by minimizing the redundancy in sampling events.

Spatial optimization uses an islands genetic algorithm to identify near-optimal network designs removing 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 wells from the existing monitoring network. With this method, choosing a greater number of wells to remove results in greater cost savings and decreased accuracy of the average relative difference between interpolated maps of the reduced-dataset and the full-dataset. The genetic search algorithm identified reduced networks that best capture the spatial patterns of the average concentration plume while preserving long-term temporal trends at individual wells. Concentration data for 10 analyte types are integrated in a single optimization so that all datasets may be evaluated simultaneously. A constituent was selected for inclusion in the spatial optimization problem when the observations were sufficient to (1) establish a two-range variability model, (2) classify at least one concentration time series as a continuous record block, and (3) make a prediction using the quantile-kriging interpolation method. The selected constituents include sodium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tritium, strontium-90, and plutonium-238.

In temporal optimization, an iterative-thinning method was used to find an optimal sampling frequency for each analyte-well pair. Optimal frequencies indicate that for many of the wells, samples may be collected less frequently and still be able to characterize the concentration over time. The optimization results indicated that the sample-collection interval may be increased by an of average of 273 days owing to temporal redundancy.

Twining and others

Title

Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head, water temperature, and chemical constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Brian V. TwiningORCiDEmail, Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail, and Calvin Anderson

Suggested citation

Twining, B.V., Bartholomay, R.C., Fisher, J.C., and Anderson, C., 2021, Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head, water temperature, and chemical constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2014u201318: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2021u20135002, 82 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20215002.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{TwiningOthers2021a,
  title = {Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic
    head, water temperature, and chemical constituents in
    the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National
    Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Brian V. Twining and Roy C. Bartholomay and
    Jason C. Fisher and Calvin Anderson},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2021},
  number = {2021--5002 (DOE/ID--22254)},
  pages = {82},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20215002},
}

Abstract

Radiochemical and chemical wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds and disposal wells since the early 1950s at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), southeastern Idaho, has affected the water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, added a multilevel well-monitoring network to their ongoing monitoring program to begin describing the vertical movement and distribution of the chemical constituents in the ESRP aquifer.

Multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) monitoring at the INL has been ongoing since 2006, and this report summarizes data collected during 2014–18 from 11 multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic head (head) and groundwater temperature data were collected, including 177 measurements from hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. One port (port 3) within well USGS 134 was not monitored owing to a valve failure.

Vertical head and temperature changes were quantified for each of the 11 multilevel monitoring systems. Fractured basalt zones generally had relatively small vertical head differences and showed a higher occurrence within volcanic rift zones. Poor connectivity between fractures and higher vertical gradients generally were attributed to sediment layers and (or) layers of dense basalt. Hydraulic head ranged from 4,415.5 to 4,462.6 feet above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988; groundwater temperature ranged from 10.4 to 16.8 degrees Celsius.

Normalized mean head values were analyzed for all 11 multilevel monitoring wells for the period of record (2007–18). The mean head values suggest a moderately positive correlation among all MLMS wells and generally reflect regional fluctuations in water levels in response to seasonal climatic changes. MLMS wells within volcanic rift zones and near the southern boundary indicate a temporal correlation that is strongly positive. MLMS wells in the Big Lost Trough indicate some variations in temporal correlations that may result from proximity to the mountain front to the northwest and episodic flow in the Big Lost River drainage system.

During 2014–18, water samples were collected from one to four discrete sampling zones, isolated by packers, in the upper 250–750 feet of the aquifer from 11 multilevel monitoring wells and were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic constituents, and nutrients. Some additional samples were collected for volatile organic compounds from wells near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC).

Nine quality-control replicate samples, three field blanks, and two equipment blanks were collected during 2014–18 as a measure of quality assurance. Concentrations of major ions and chromium in equipment blank samples were near or less than the reporting levels, suggesting no background contamination from field equipment or source water. About 88 percent of the replicate pairs for radionuclide results were statistically comparable and 100 percent of the replicate pairs for inorganic and organic compounds were statistically comparable.

Concentrations in wells USGS 105 and 132 mostly were greater than the reporting levels, and concentrations were mostly consistent. Wells USGS 103, USGS 131, and MIDDLE 2051 had concentrations mostly greater than the reporting 2 Multilevel Groundwater Monitoring, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2014–18 level and showed decreasing concentrations. The decreasing concentrations are attributed to discontinued disposal, radioactive decay, and dilution and dispersion in the aquifer.

The volatile organic compound tetrachloromethane was found in all zones sampled in well USGS 132 near the RWMC and was found in two zones in well USGS 137A. Concentrations are attributed to waste disposal at the RWMC. Questionable detections of tetrachloroethene were found in well MIDDLE 2051; the source probably was tubing fluid in the well. Tetrachloroethene was found in the tubing fluid at elevated concentrations in three wells (USGS 137A, MIDDLE 2050A, and MIDDLE 2051), and remedial efforts to remove the elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethene from tubing fluid have been successful in each of the three MLMS wells.

Twining and others

Title

Completion Summary for Boreholes USGS 148, 148A, and 149 at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Brian V. TwiningORCiDEmail, Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail, Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, and Blair W. PackerORCiD

Suggested citation

Twining, B.V., Maimer, N.V., Bartholomay, R.C., and Packer, B.W., 2021, Completion summary for boreholes USGS 148, 148A, and 149 at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2021u20135131 (DOE/ID-22255), 38 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20215131.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{TwiningOthers2021b,
  title = {Completion Summary for Boreholes USGS 148,
    148A, and 149 at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho
    National Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Brian V. Twining and Neil V. Maimer and Roy C.
    Bartholomay and Blair W. Packer},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2021},
  number = {2021--5131 (DOE/ID--22255)},
  pages = {38},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20215131},
}

Abstract

In 2019, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 148A and USGS 149 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho. Initially, boreholes USGS 148A and USGS 149 were continuously cored to allow the USGS and INL subcontractor to collect select geophysical and seismic data and evaluate properties of recovered core material. The USGS geophysical data and descriptions of core material are described in this report; however, data collected by the INL contractor, including seismic data, are not included as part of the report. The unsaturated zone at both borehole locations is relatively thick, depth to water was measured at approximately 663.6 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) in USGS 148A, and at approximately 654.1 ft BLS at USGS 149. On completion of coring and data collection, both boreholes (USGS 148A and USGS 149) were repurposed as monitoring wells. Well USGS 148A was constructed to a depth of 759 ft BLS and instrumented with a dedicated submersible pump and measurement line; well USGS 149 was constructed to a depth of 974 ft BLS and instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system (WestbayTM).

Geophysical data, collected by the USGS, were used to characterize the subsurface geology and aquifer conditions. Natural gamma log measurements were used to assess sediment-layer thickness and location. Neutron and gamma-gamma source logs were used to confirm fractured and vesicular basalt identified for aquifer testing and multilevel monitoring well zone testing. Acoustic televiewer logs, collected for well USGS 149, were used to identify fractures and assess groundwater movement when compared with neutron measurements. Furthermore, gyroscopic deviation measurements were used to measure horizontal and vertical displacement for the constructed boreholes USGS 148A and USGS 149. A single-well aquifer test was done in well USGS 148A during November 6–7, 2019, to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity. Estimates for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were 6.34×103 feet squared per day and 3.17 feet per day, respectively. The aquifer test was run overnight (21.3 hours) and measured drawdown was relatively small (0.09 ft) at sustained pumping rates ranging from 15.7 to 16.1 gallons per minute. The transmissivity estimates for well USGS 148A were slightly lower than those determined from previous aquifer tests for wells near the Materials and Fuels Complex, but well within range of other aquifer tests done at the INL.

Water-quality samples, collected from well USGS 148A and from four zones in well USGS 149, were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples for most of the inorganic constituents showed similar chemistry in USGS 148A and all four zones in USGS 149. Water samples for stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicated some possible influence of irrigation on the water quality. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations indicated influence from anthropogenic sources. The volatile organic compound and radiochemical data indicated that wastewater disposal practices at the Materials and Fuels Complex or from drilling had no detectable influence on these wells.

2020

Bartholomay and others

Title

An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2016–18

Authors

Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail, Gordon W. RattrayORCiDEmail, and Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Bartholomay, R.C., Maimer, N.V., Rattray, G.W., and Fisher, J.C., 2020, An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2016–18: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2019–5149 (DOE/ID–22251), 82 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20195149.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{BartholomayOthers2020,
  title = {An update of hydrologic conditions and
    distribution of selected constituents in water, Eastern
    Snake River Plain Aquifer and perched groundwater zones,
    Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2016--18},
  author = {Roy C. Bartholomay and Neil V. Maimer and Gordon
    W. Rattray and Jason C. Fisher},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2020},
  number = {2019--5149 (DOE/ID--22251)},
  pages = {82},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20195149},
}

Abstract

Since 1952, wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater-monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the ESRP aquifer and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2016–18.

From March–May 2015 to March–May 2018, water levels in wells completed in the ESRP aquifer declined in the northern part of the INL and increased in the southwestern part. Water-level decreases ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 feet (ft) in the northern part of the INL and increases ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 ft in the southwestern part.

Detectable concentrations of radiochemical constituents in water samples from wells in the ESRP aquifer at the INL generally decreased or remained constant during 2016–18. Decreases in concentrations were attributed to radioactive decay, changes in waste-disposal methods, and dilution from recharge and underflow.

In 2018, concentrations of tritium in water samples collected from 46 of 111 aquifer wells were greater than the reporting level of three times the sample standard deviation and ranged from 260±50 to 5,100±190 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Tritium concentrations in water from 10 wells completed in deep perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex generally were greater than or equal to the reporting level during at least one sampling event during 2016–18, and concentrations ranged from 150 ±50 to 12,900 ±200 pCi/L.

Concentrations of strontium-90 in water from 17 of 60 ESRP aquifer wells sampled during April or October 2018 exceeded the reporting level, ranging from 2.2±0.7 to 363±19 pCi/L. Strontium-90 was not detected in the ESRP aquifer beneath the ATR Complex. During at least one sampling event during 2016–18, concentrations of strontium-90 in water from eight wells completed in deep perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer at the ATR Complex equaled or exceeded the reporting levels, and concentrations ranged from 0.57±0.17 to 34.3±1.2 pCi/L.

During 2016–18, concentrations of cesium-137 were less than the reporting level in all but one ESRP aquifer well, and concentrations of plutonium-238, -239, and -240 (undivided), and americium-241 were less than the reporting level in water samples from all ESRP aquifer wells.

In April 2009, the dissolved chromium concentration in water from one ESRP aquifer well, USGS 65, south of the ATR Complex equaled the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 100 micrograms per liter (µg/L). In April 2018, the concentration of chromium in water from that well had decreased to 76.0 µg/L, less than the MCL. Concentrations in water samples from 62 other ESRP aquifer wells sampled ranged from less than 0.6 to 21.6 µg/L. During 2016–18, dissolved chromium was detected in water from all wells completed in deep perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer at the ATR Complex, and concentrations ranged from 4.2 to 98.8 µg/L.

In 2018, concentrations of sodium in water from most ESRP aquifer wells in the southern part of the INL were greater than the western tributary background concentration of 8.3 milligrams per liter (mg/L). After the new percolation ponds were put into service in 2002 southwest of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), concentrations of sodium in water samples from the Rifle Range well increased steadily until 2008, when concentrations generally began decreasing. The increases and decreases were attributed to disposal variability in the new percolation ponds. During 2016–18, dissolved sodium concentrations in water from 18 wells completed in deep perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer at the ATR Complex ranged from 6.37 to 143 mg/L.

In 2018, concentrations of chloride in most water samples from ESRP aquifer wells south of the INTEC and at the Central Facilities Area exceeded the background concentrations. Chloride concentrations in water from wells south of the INTEC generally have decreased since 2002 when chloride disposal to the old percolation ponds was discontinued. After the new percolation ponds southwest of the INTEC were put into service in 2002, concentrations of chloride in water samples from one well rose steadily until 2008 then began decreasing. During 2016–18, dissolved chloride concentrations in deep perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer from 18 wells at the ATR Complex ranged from 3.89 to 176 mg/L.

In 2018, sulfate concentrations in water samples from ESRP aquifer wells in the south-central part of the INL exceeded the background concentration of sulfate and ranged from 22 to 151 mg/L. The greater-than-background concentrations in water from these wells probably resulted from sulfate disposal at the ATR Complex infiltration ponds or the old INTEC percolation ponds. In 2018, sulfate concentrations in water samples from wells near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) mostly were greater than background concentrations and could have resulted from well construction techniques and (or) waste disposal at the RWMC or the ATR complex. The maximum dissolved sulfate concentration in shallow perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer near the ATR Complex was 215 mg/L in well CWP 3 in April 2016. During 2018, dissolved sulfate concentrations in water from wells completed in deep perched groundwater above the ESRP aquifer near the cold-waste ponds at the ATR Complex ranged from 65.8 to 171 mg/L.

In 2018, concentrations of nitrate in water from most ESRP aquifer wells at and near the INTEC exceeded the western tributary background concentration of 0.655 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in wells southwest of the INTEC and farther away from the influence of disposal areas and the Big Lost River show a general decrease in nitrate concentration through time. Two wells south of the INTEC show increasing trends that could be the result of wastewater beneath the INTEC tank farm being mobilized to the aquifer.

During 2016–18, water samples from several ESRP aquifer wells were collected and analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sixteen VOCs were detected. At least 1 and as many as 7 VOCs were detected in water samples from 15 wells. The primary VOCs detected include carbon tetrachloride, trichloromethane, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethene. In 2016–18, concentrations for all VOCs were less than their respective MCLs for drinking water, except carbon tetrachloride in water from two wells and trichloroethene in one well.

During 2016–18, variability and bias were evaluated from 37 replicate and 15 blank quality-assurance samples. Results from replicate analyses were investigated to evaluate sample variability. Constituents with acceptable reproducibility were major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and VOCs. All radiochemical constituents had acceptable reproducibility except for gross alpha- and beta-particle radioactivity. The gross alpha- and beta-particle radioactivity samples that did not meet reproducibility criteria had low concentrations. Bias from sample contamination was evaluated from equipment, field, and source-solution blanks. Cadmium had a concentration slightly greater than its reporting level in a source-solution blank, and chloride and ammonia had concentrations that were slightly greater than their respective reporting levels in field and equipment blanks. Subtracting concentrations of chloride and ammonia in field blanks from the concurrently collected equipment blank indicates that adjusted concentrations for chloride and ammonia in the equipment blanks were less than their respective reporting levels. Therefore, no sample bias was observed for any of the sample periods.

Fisher

Title

inldata—Collection of datasets for the U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory Aquifer Monitoring Networks

Authors

Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Fisher, J.C., 2020, inldata—Collection of datasets for the U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory Aquifer Monitoring Networks: U.S. Geological Survey software release, R package, Reston, Va., https://doi.org/10.5066/P9PP9UXZ.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{Fisher2020,
  title = {inldata---Collection of datasets for the U.S.
    Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory Aquifer
    Monitoring Networks},
  author = {Jason C. Fisher},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {software release},
  year = {2020},
  note = {R package},
  address = {Reston, Va.},
  doi = {10.5066/P9PP9UXZ},
}

Abstract

The R package inldata is a collection of datasets for the U.S. Geological Survey-Idaho National Laboratory aquifer monitoring networks administrated by the Idaho National Laboratory Project Office in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Data collected from wells at the Idaho National Laboratory have been used to describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, located in the southeastern part of Idaho, and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Included in this package are the long-term monitoring records, dating back to measurements from 1949, and the geospatial data describing the areas from which samples were collected or observations were made. Bundling this data into a single R package significantly reduces the magnitude of data processing for researches. And provides a way to distribute the data along with its documentation in a standard format. Geospatial datasets are made available in a common projection and datum, and geohydrologic data have been structured to facilitate analysis. A list of all datasets in the package is given below.

Helmuth and others

Title

Geologic map of the Butte City 7.5’ Quadrangle, Butte County, Idaho

Authors

Samuel L. HelmuthORCiDEmail, Evan J. Martin, Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail, and Duane E. ChampionORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Helmuth, S.L., Martin, E., Hodges, M.K.V., and Champion, D.E., 2020, Geologic map of the Butte City 7.5’ Quadrangle, Butte County, Idaho: Idaho Geological Survey Technical Report T-20-04, 1 sheet, https://www.idahogeology.org/product/t-20-04.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{HelmuthOthers2020,
  title = {Geologic map of the Butte City 7.5' Quadrangle,
    Butte County, Idaho},
  author = {Samuel L. Helmuth and Evan J. Martin and Mary
    K.V. Hodges and Duane E. Champion},
  institution = {Idaho Geological Survey},
  type = {Technical Report},
  year = {2020},
  number = {T-20-04},
  note = {1 sheet},
}

Abstract

No abstract available.

Schusler and others

Title

Regionally continuous Miocene rhyolites beneath the eastern Snake River Plain reveal localized flexure at its western margin: Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity

Authors

Kyle L. Schusler, David M. PearsonEmail, Michael McCurry, Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, and Mark H. Anders

Suggested citation

Schusler, K.L., Pearson, D.M., McCurry, M.J., Bartholomay, R.C., and Anders, M.H., 2020, Regionally continuous Miocene rhyolites beneath the eastern Snake River Plain reveal localized flexure at its western margin: Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity: The Mountain Geologist 57:3, https://doi.org/10.31582/rmag.mg.57.3.241.

BibTeX citation
@Article{SchuslerOthers2020,
  title = {Regionally continuous Miocene rhyolites beneath
    the eastern Snake River Plain reveal localized flexure
    at its western margin: Idaho National Laboratory and
    vicinity},
  author = {Kyle L. Schusler and David M. Pearson and
    Michael McCurry and Roy C. Bartholomay and Mark H.
    Anders},
  journal = {The Mountain Geologist},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {57},
  number = {3},
  pages = {241-270},
  doi = {10.31582/rmag.mg.57.3.241},
}

Abstract

The eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a northeast-trending topographic basin interpreted to be the result of the time-transgressive track of the North American plate above the Yellowstone hotspot. The track is defined by the age progression of silicic volcanic rocks exposed along the margins of the ESRP. However, the bulk of these silicic rocks are buried under 1 to 3 kilometers of younger basalts. Here, silicic volcanic rocks recovered from boreholes that penetrate below the basalts, including INEL-1, WO-2 and new deep borehole USGS-142, are correlated with one another and to surface exposures to assess various models for ESRP subsidence. These correlations are established on U/Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar sanidine age determinations, phenocryst assemblages, major and trace element geochemistry, d18O isotopic data from selected phenocrysts, and initial eHf values of zircon. These data suggest a correlation of: (1) the newly documented 8.1±0.2 Ma rhyolite of Butte Quarry (sample 17KS03), exposed near Arco, Idaho to the upper-most Picabo volcanic field rhyolites found in borehole INEL-1; (2) the 6.73±0.02 Ma East Arco Hills rhyolite (sample 16KS02) to the Blacktail Creek Tuff, which was also encountered at the bottom of borehole WO-2; and (3) the 6.42±0.07 Ma rhyolite of borehole USGS-142 to the Walcott Tuff B encountered in deep borehole WO-2. These results show that rhyolites found along the western margin of the ESRP dip ~20° south-southeast toward the basin axis, and then gradually tilt less steeply in the subsurface as the axis is approached. This subsurface pattern of tilting is consistent with a previously proposed crustal flexural model of subsidence based only on surface exposures, but is inconsistent with subsidence models that require accommodation of ESRP subsidence on either a major normal fault or strike-slip fault.

2019

Maimer and Bartholomay

Title

Iodine-129 in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2017–18

Authors

Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail and Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Maimer, N.V., and Bartholomay, R.C., 2019, Iodine-129 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2017–18: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2019–5133 (DOE/ID–22250), 20 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20195133.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{MaimerBartholomay2019,
  title = {Iodine-129 in the Eastern Snake River Plain
    Aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory,
    Idaho, 2017--18},
  author = {Neil V. Maimer and Roy C. Bartholomay},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2019},
  number = {2019--5133 (DOE/ID--22250)},
  pages = {20},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20195133},
}

Abstract

From 1953 to 1988, approximately 0.941 curies of iodine-129 (129I) were contained in wastewater generated at the Idaho National Laboratory, with almost all of it discharged at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Until 1984, most of the wastewater was discharged directly into the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer through a deep disposal well; however, some wastewater was also discharged into unlined infiltration ponds or leaked from distribution systems below the INTEC.

During 2017–18, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected samples for 129I from 30 wells that monitor the ESRP aquifer to track concentrations and changes of the carcinogenic radionuclide that has a 15.7 million-year half-life. Concentrations of 129I in the aquifer ranged from 0.000016±0.000001 to 0.88±0.03 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), and concentrations generally decreased in wells near the INTEC as compared with previously collected samples. The average concentration of 15 wells sampled during 5 different sample periods decreased from 1.15 pCi/L in 1990–91 to 0.168 pCi/L in 2017–18, but average concentrations were similar to 2011–12 within analytical uncertainty. All but four wells within a 3-mile radius of the INTEC showed decreases in concentration, and all samples had concentrations less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s maximum contaminant level of 1 pCi/L. These decreases are attributed to the discontinuation of disposal of 129I in wastewater and to dilution and dispersion in the aquifer. Some wells southeast of INTEC showed increasing trends; these increases were attributed to variable transmissivity.

Although wells near INTEC sampled in 2017–18 showed decreases in concentrations compared with data collected previously, some wells south of the INL boundary showed small increases. These increases are attributed to historical variable discharge rates of wastewater that eventually moved to these well locations as a pulse of water from a particular disposal period.

Rattray

Title

Evaluation of chemical and hydrologic processes in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer based on results from geochemical modeling, Idaho National Laboratory, eastern Idaho

Authors

Gordon W. RattrayORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Rattray, G.W., 2019, Evaluation of chemical and hydrologic processes in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer based on results from geochemical modeling, Idaho National Laboratory, eastern Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1837–B (DOE/ID–22248), 85 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1837B.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{Rattray2019,
  title = {Evaluation of chemical and hydrologic processes
    in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer based on
    results from geochemical modeling, Idaho National
    Laboratory, eastern Idaho},
  author = {Gordon W. Rattray},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Professional Paper},
  year = {2019},
  number = {1837--B (DOE/ID--22248)},
  pages = {85},
  doi = {10.3133/pp1837B},
}

Abstract

Nuclear research activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) produced liquid and solid chemical and radiochemical wastes that were disposed to the subsurface resulting in detectable concentrations of some waste constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. These waste constituents may affect the water quality of the aquifer and may pose risks to the eventual users of the aquifer water. To understand these risks to water quality the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the DOE, conducted geochemical mass-balance modeling of the ESRP aquifer to improve the understanding of chemical reactions, sources of recharge, mixing of water, and groundwater flow directions in the shallow (upper 250 feet) aquifer at the INL.

Modeling was conducted using the water chemistry of 127 water samples collected from sites at and near the INL. Water samples were collected between 1952 and 2017 with most of the samples collected during the mid-1990s. Geochemistry and isotopic data used in geochemical modeling consisted of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, major ions, silica, aluminum, iron, and the stable isotope ratios of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon.

Geochemical modeling results indicated that the primary chemical reactions in the aquifer were precipitation of calcite and dissolution of plagioclase (An60) and basalt volcanic glass. Secondary minerals other than calcite included calcium montmorillonite and goethite. Reverse cation exchange, consisting of sodium exchanging for calcium on clay minerals, occurred near site facilities where large amounts of sodium were released to the ESRP aquifer in wastewater discharge. Reverse cation exchange acted to retard the movement of wastewater-derived sodium in the aquifer.

Regional groundwater inflow was the primary source of recharge to the aquifer underlying the Northeast and Southeast INL Areas. Birch Creek (BC), the Big Lost River (BLR), and groundwater from BC valley provided recharge to the North INL Area, and the BLR and groundwater from BC and Little Lost River (LLR) valleys provided recharge to the Central INL Area. The BLR, groundwater from the BLR and LLR valleys and the Lost River Range, and precipitation provided recharge to the Northwest and Southwest INL Areas. The primary source of recharge west and southwest of the INL was groundwater inflow from BLR valley. Upwelling geothermal water was a small source of recharge at two wells. Aquifer recharge from surface water in the northern, central, and western parts of the INL indicated that the aquifer in these areas was a dynamic, open system, whereas the aquifer in the eastern part of the INL, which receives little recharge from surface water, was a relatively static and closed system.

Sources of recharge identified from isotope ratios and geochemical modeling (major ion concentrations) were nearly identical for the North, Northeast, Southeast, and Central INL Areas, which indicated that both methods probably accurately identified the sources of recharge in these areas. Conversely, isotope ratios indicated that the BLR and groundwater from the LLR valley provided most recharge to the western parts of the Northwest and Southwest INL Areas, whereas geochemical modeling results indicated a smaller area of recharge from the BLR and groundwater from the LLR valley, a larger area of recharge from the Lost River Range, and recharge of groundwater from the BLR valley that extended to the west INL boundary. The results from geochemical modeling probably were more accurate because major ion concentrations, but not isotope ratios, were available to characterize groundwater from the BLR valley and the Lost River Range.

Sources of recharge identified with a groundwater flow model (using particle tracking) and geochemical modeling were similar for the Northeast and Southeast INL Areas. However, differences between the models were that the geochemical model represented (1) recharge of groundwater from the Lost River Range in the western part of the INL, whereas the flow model did not, (2) recharge of groundwater from the BC and BLR valleys extending farther south and east, respectively, than the flow model, and (3) more recharge from the BLR in the Southwest INL Area than the flow model.

Mixing of aquifer water beneath the INL included (1) mixing of regional groundwater and water from the BC valley in the Northeast and Southeast INL Areas and (2) mixing of surface water (primarily from the BLR) and groundwater across much of the North, Central, Northwest, and Southwest INL Areas. Localized recharge from precipitation mixed with groundwater in the Northwest and Southwest INL Areas, and localized upwelling geothermal water mixed with groundwater in the Central and Northeast INL Areas. Flow directions of regional groundwater were south in the eastern part of the INL and south-southwest at downgradient locations. Groundwater from the BC and LLR valleys initially flowed southeast before changing to south-southwest flow directions that paralleled regional groundwater, and groundwater from the BLR valley initially flowed south before changing to a south-southwest direction.

Wastewater-contaminated groundwater flowed south from the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) infiltration ponds in a narrow plume, with the percentage of wastewater in groundwater decreasing due to dilution, dispersion, and (or) degradation from about 60–80 percent wastewater 0.7–0.8 mile (mi) south of the INTEC infiltration ponds to about 1.4 percent wastewater about 15.5 mi south of the INTEC infiltration ponds. Wastewater-contaminated groundwater flowed southeast and then southwest from the Naval Reactors Facility industrial waste ditch, with the percentage of wastewater in groundwater decreasing from about 100 percent wastewater adjacent to the waste ditch to about 2 percent wastewater about 0.6 mi south of the waste ditch.

Twining and Maimer

Title

Transmissivity and geophysical data for selected wells located at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2017–18

Authors

Brian V. TwiningORCiDEmail and Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Twining, B.V., and Maimer, N.V., 2019, Transmissivity and geophysical data for selected wells located at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2017-18: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2019–5134 (DOE/ID–22249), 30 p. plus appendixes, https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20195134.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{TwiningMaimer2019,
  title = {Transmissivity and geophysical data for selected
    wells located at and near the Idaho National Laboratory,
    Idaho, 2017--18},
  author = {Brian V. Twining and Neil V. Maimer},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2019},
  number = {2019--5134 (DOE/ID--22249)},
  pages = {30},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20195134},
}

Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, conducted aquifer tests during 2017–18 on 101 wells at and near the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho, to define the hydraulic characteristics for individual wells. These were short-duration aquifer tests, conducted with a limited number of observations during routine sampling. Pumped intervals (water columns) for individual wells ranged from 12 to 790 feet (ft). Semi-constant discharge rates during aquifer testing ranged from 1 to 45 gallons per minute (gal/min), water-level response to pumping ranged from no observed drawdown to 52.4 ft, and length of aquifer tests for individual wells ranged from 10 to 160 minutes. Individual well data were analyzed to estimate the capacity of the well to produce water (specific capacity) and to estimate values for transmissivity. Estimates of specific capacity for individual wells ranged from less than (<) 1.0 to greater than (>) 3.0×103 gallons per minute per foot; estimates of transmissivity for individual wells ranged from 2.0 to >5.4×105 feet squared per day (ft2/d).

Geophysical log data, well construction information, and general geology for individual wells were presented and included in this report. Basic hydrogeologic features for individual wells were described, along with a composite of natural gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma dual density, and acoustic televiewer data (when available). The geophysical and geologic data were used to suggest the location and thickness of sediment layers along with fractured and dense basalt areas for individual wells. Geophysical data were used to describe the general geology where geologic descriptions and (or) driller notes were not available.

A simplified approach was used to complete aquifer testing for 101 individual wells during routine sampling. This approach involved using a dedicated submersible pump and a dedicated water-level measurement line to stress the well through pumping while simultaneously taking water-level measurements. Discharge rates were considered semi-constant and water levels were measured using an electric tape. These tests were done during routine sampling; therefore, the aquifer test data were limited to the time it took to purge the well before sampling activities. All 101 single-well aquifer tests were analyzed using the specific-capacity method to approximate transmissivity.

Review of well productivity included examination of aquifer test data for 65 wells collected during this investigation and previous investigations spanning about 30 years. Additionally, hydrograph data were presented for a similar period of record at four select well locations to provide a snapshot of the general water-level change along the north end of the INL, the center of the INL, and along the south end of the INL. Eleven of the 65 wells had a change in well productivity—six wells with increased productivity and five wells with decreased productivity. Hydrograph data suggest that water-level responses over a 30-year period can vary by almost 25 ft between the northern to southern end of the INL, with the largest water-level declines of about 35 ft at the northern end of the INL. Near the southern part of the INL, water-level declines were about 10 ft for that same 30-year period of record. Declines in water levels and changes in well conditions seemed to affect about 17 percent of individual wells; however, 83 percent of wells did not have any changes in well conditions. Observations of well conditions were based on the wells used for this study and do not represent wells that are no longer in service.

Estimates of transmissivity were divided into five categories, ranging from very low to very high. About 53 percent of the wells tested suggest high or very high transmissivity (>10,000 ft2/d), about 23 percent of the wells tested show low or very low (referred to as “lower”) transmissivity (=1,000 ft2/d), and about 24 percent of wells tested suggest moderate transmissivity (>1,000 to 10,000 ft2/d). Transmissivity range(s) were developed for well data collected as part of this investigation.

Location of volcanic vent corridors along with dike systems under the subsurface were examined in conjunction with wells that indicate lower transmissivity (=1,000 ft2/d) to develop inferred areas of lower transmissivity. The individual wells within the low and very low transmissivity category seem to correlate with select volcanic vent corridor areas identified in previous investigations. Based on data from 24 individual wells, eight inferred regions were identified that show low and very low transmissivity. The largest inferred area of lower transmissivity (=1,000 ft2/d) seems to extend from the Lost River Range through the center of the INL and crosses the southern INL boundary near Atomic City. Seven other inferred regions of lower transmissivity (>1,000 ft2/d) are identified and occur along areas where volcanic vent corridors were previously identified.

2018

Hodges and others

Title

Updated procedures for using drill cores and cuttings at the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail, Linda C. Davis, and Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Hodges, M.K.V., Davis, L.C., and Bartholomay, R.C., 2018, Updated procedures for using drill cores and cuttings at the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1001 (DOE/ID–22244), 48 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181001.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{HodgesOthers2018,
  title = {Updated procedures for using drill cores and
    cuttings at the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho
    National Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Mary K.V. Hodges and Linda C. Davis and Roy C.
    Bartholomay},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Open-File Report},
  year = {2018},
  number = {2018--1001 (DOE/ID--22244)},
  pages = {48},
  doi = {10.3133/ofr20181001},
}

Abstract

In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from subsurface investigations conducted at the INL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials.

The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the corehole names, corehole locations, and depth intervals available.

Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose most cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest continuously drilled core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers’ responsibilities for access to the facility and for examination, sampling, and return of materials.

Rattray

Title

Geochemistry of groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, eastern Idaho

Authors

Gordon W. RattrayORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Rattray, G.W., 2018, Geochemistry of groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, eastern Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1837–A (DOE/ID–22246), 198 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/pp1837A.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{Rattray2018,
  title = {Geochemistry of groundwater in the eastern Snake
    River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory and
    vicinity, eastern Idaho},
  author = {Gordon W. Rattray},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Professional Paper},
  year = {2018},
  number = {1837--A (DOE/ID--22246)},
  pages = {198},
  doi = {10.3133/pp1837A},
}

Abstract

Nuclear research activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in eastern Idaho produced radiochemical and chemical wastes that were discharged to the subsurface, resulting in detectable concentrations of some waste constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. These waste constituents may pose risks to the water quality of the aquifer. In order to understand these risks to water quality the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the DOE, conducted a study of groundwater geochemistry to improve the understanding of hydrologic and chemical processes in the ESRP aquifer at and near the INL and to understand how these processes affect waste constituents in the aquifer.

Geochemistry data were used to identify sources of recharge, mixing of water, and directions of groundwater flow in the ESRP aquifer at the INL. The geochemistry data were analyzed from 167 sample sites at and near the INL. The sites included 150 groundwater, 13 surface-water, and 4 geothermal-water sites. The data were collected between 1952 and 2012, although most data collected at the INL were collected from 1989 to 1996. Water samples were analyzed for all or most of the following: field parameters, dissolved gases, major ions, dissolved metals, isotope ratios, and environmental tracers.

Sources of recharge identified at the INL were regional groundwater, groundwater from the Little Lost River (LLR) and Birch Creek (BC) valleys, groundwater from the Lost River Range, geothermal water, and surface water from the Big Lost River (BLR), LLR, and BC. Recharge from the BLR that may have occurred during the last glacial epoch, or paleorecharge, may be present at several wells in the southwestern part of the INL. Mixing of water at the INL primarily included mixing of surface water with groundwater from the tributary valleys and mixing of geothermal water with regional groundwater. Additionally, a zone of mixing between tributary valley water and regional groundwater, trending southwesterly, extended from near the northeastern boundary of the INL to the southern boundary of the INL. Groundwater flow directions for regional groundwater were southwesterly, and flow directions for tributary groundwater were southeasterly upon entering the ESRP, but eventually began to flow southwesterly in a direction parallel with regional groundwater.

Several discrepancies were identified from comparison of sources of recharge determined from geochemistry data and backward particle tracking with a groundwater-flow model. Some discrepancies observed in the particle tracking results included representation of recharge from BC near the north INL boundary, groundwater from the BC valley not extending far enough south, regional groundwater that extends too far west in the southern part of the INL, and no representation of recharge from geothermal water in model layer 1 or recharge from the BLR in the southwestern part of the INL.

Schusler

Title

Localized late Miocene flexure near the western margin of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, constrained by regional correlation of Snake River-type rhyolites and kinematic analysis of small-displacement faults

Authors

Kyle L. Schusler

Suggested citation

Schusler, K.L., 2018, Localized late Miocene flexure near the western margin of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, constrained by regional correlation of Snake River-type rhyolites and kinematic analysis of small-displacement faults: Idaho State University, Master’s thesis, Pocatello, Idaho, 137 p. 

BibTeX citation
@MastersThesis{Schusler2018,
  title = {Localized late Miocene flexure near the western
    margin of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho,
    constrained by regional correlation of Snake River-type
    rhyolites and kinematic analysis of small-displacement
    faults},
  author = {Kyle L. Schusler},
  school = {Idaho State University},
  address = {Pocatello, Idaho},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {137},
}

Abstract

The eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer is contained within the northeast trending volcanic province known as the ESRP. The majority of the ESRP aquifer flows through rubble zones between basalt layers. In the western Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the base of the ESRP aquifer is likely defined by the contact between subsurface Snake River-type rhyolites and overlying basalts. Near the western margin of the ESRP, basalts are thought to thin, and the subsurface geology and geometry of the basalt-rhyolite contact there are poorly constrained.

A recently drilled rhyolite in borehole USGS-142 is tentatively correlated to the Walcott Tuff B in borehole WO-2. Another rhyolite, exposed at the surface southeast of Arco, Idaho, dips 20° south toward the ESRP, and is tentatively correlated to the uppermost Picabo-aged rhyolite found in borehole INEL-1. These correlations suggest that the tilts of surface and subsurface rhyolites must shallow toward their correlative units from the margin to the center of the ESRP; the tilts of subsurface rhyolites are localized near the margin of the ESRP and northern Basin and Range.

This research also involved a kinematic analysis of northeast-striking, small-offset faults due east of Arco, Idaho as a basis for inferring the tectonic evolution of the western margin of the ESRP. Northeast-striking faults record nearly pure dip-slip offset and a northwest-southeast extension direction. In addition, faults proximal to the ESRP record a northwest-plunging extension direction, whereas faults distal to the ESRP record a shallowly southeast-plunging extension direction. These observations suggest that the northeast-striking faults likely formed as a result of early stages of flexure from the subsidence of the ESRP and were later rotated similarly to Mesozoic fold-hinges.

Twining and others

Title

Completion summary for borehole TAN-2312 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Brian V. TwiningORCiDEmail, Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, and Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Twining, B.V., Bartholomay, R.C., and Hodges, M.K.V., 2018, Completion summary for borehole TAN-2312 at Test Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2018–5118 (DOE/ID–22247), 29 p., plus appendixes, https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20185118.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{TwiningOthers2018,
  title = {Completion summary for borehole TAN-2312 at Test
    Area North, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Brian V. Twining and Roy C. Bartholomay and Mary
    K.V. Hodges},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2018},
  number = {2018--5118 (DOE/ID--22247)},
  pages = {29},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20185118},
}

Abstract

In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed borehole TAN-2312 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. The location of borehole TAN-2312 was selected because it was downgradient from TAN and believed to be the outer extent of waste plumes originating from the TAN facility. Borehole TAN-2312 initially was cored to collect continuous geologic data, and then re-drilled to complete construction as a monitor well. The final construction for borehole TAN-2312 required 16- and 10-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel well casing to 37 and 228 feet below land surface (ft BLS), respectively, and 9.9-in. diameter open-hole completion below the casing to 522 ft BLS. Depth to water is measured near 244 ft BLS. Following construction and data collection, a temporary submersible pump and water-level access line were placed near 340 ft BLS to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels.

Borehole TAN-2312 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 37 ft BLS) to a depth of 568 ft BLS. Not including surface sediment (0–37 ft), recovery of basalt and sediment core at borehole TAN-2312 was about 93 percent; however, core recovery from 170 to 568 ft BLS was 100 percent. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, basalt examined from 37 to 568 ft BLS consists of about 32 basalt flows that range from approximately 3 to 87 ft in thickness and 4 sediment layers with a combined thickness of approximately 76 ft. About 2 ft of total sediment was described for the saturated zone, observed from 244 to 568 ft BLS, near 296 and 481 ft BLS. Sediment described for the saturated zone were composed of fine-grained sand and silt with a lesser amount of clay. Basalt texture for borehole TAN-2312 generally was described as aphanitic, phaneritic, and porphyritic. Basalt flows varied from highly fractured to dense with high to low vesiculation.

Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after core drilling and after final construction at borehole TAN-2312. Geophysical logs were examined synergistically with available core material to suggest zones where groundwater flow was anticipated. Natural gamma log measurements were used to assess sediment layer thickness and location. Neutron and gamma-gamma source logs were used to identify fractured areas for aquifer testing. Acoustic televiewer logs, fluid logs, and electromagnetic flow meter results were used to identify fractures and assess groundwater movement when compared against neutron measurements. Furthermore, gyroscopic deviation measurements were used to measure horizontal and vertical displacement for borehole TAN-2312.

After construction of borehole TAN-2312, a single-well aquifer test was completed September 27, 2017, to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity. Estimates for transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity were 1.51×102 feet squared per day and 0.23 feet per day, respectively. During the 220-minute aquifer test, well TAN-2312 had about 23 ft of measured drawdown at sustained pumping rate of 27.2 gallons per minute. The transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity estimates for well TAN-2312 were lower than the values determined from previous aquifer tests in other wells near Test Area North.

Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, stable isotopes, and radionuclides. Water samples for most of the inorganic constituents showed concentrations near background levels for eastern regional groundwater. Water samples for stable isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur indicated some possible influence of irrigation on the water quality. The volatile organic compound data indicated that this well had some minor influence by wastewater disposal practices at Test Area North.

2017

Bartholomay

Title

U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho

Authors

Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Bartholomay, R.C., 2017, U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory, southeastern Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3070, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20173070.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{Bartholomay2017,
  title = {U.S. Geological Survey geohydrologic studies
    and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory,
    southeastern Idaho},
  author = {Roy C. Bartholomay},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Fact Sheet},
  year = {2017},
  number = {2017--3070},
  pages = {4},
  doi = {10.3133/fs20173070},
}

Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geohydrologic studies and monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is an ongoing, long-term program. This program, which began in 1949, includes hydrologic monitoring networks and investigative studies that describe the effects of waste disposal on water contained in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and the availability of water for long-term consumptive and industrial use. Interpretive reports documenting study findings are available to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors; other Federal, State, and local agencies; private firms; and the public at https://id.water.usgs.gov/INL/Pubs/index.html. Information contained within these reports is crucial to the management and use of the aquifer by the INL and the State of Idaho. USGS geohydrologic studies and monitoring are done in cooperation with the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

Bartholomay and others

Title

Correlation between basalt flows and radiochemical and chemical constituents in selected wells in the southwestern part of the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail, and Duane E. ChampionORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Bartholomay, R.C., Hodges, M.K.V., and Champion, D.E., 2017, Correlation between basalt flows and radiochemical and chemical constituents in selected wells in the southwestern part of the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5148 (DOE/ID–22245), 39 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175148.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{BartholomayOthers2017a,
  title = {Correlation between basalt flows and
    radiochemical and chemical constituents in selected
    wells in the southwestern part of the Idaho National
    Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Roy C. Bartholomay and Mary K.V. Hodges and
    Duane E. Champion},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2017},
  number = {2017--5148 (DOE/ID--22245)},
  pages = {39},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20175148},
}

Abstract

Wastewater discharged to wells and ponds and wastes buried in shallow pits and trenches at facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have contributed contaminants to the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer in the southwestern part of the INL. This report describes the correlation between subsurface stratigraphy in the southwestern part of the INL with information on the presence or absence of wastewater constituents to better understand how flow pathways in the aquifer control the movement of wastewater discharged at INL facilities. Paleomagnetic inclination was used to identify subsurface basalt flows based on similar inclination measurements, polarity, and stratigraphic position. Tritium concentrations, along with other chemical information for wells where tritium concentrations were lacking, were used as an indicator of which wells were influenced by wastewater disposal.

The basalt lava flows in the upper 150 feet of the ESRP aquifer where wastewater was discharged at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) consisted of the Central Facilities Area (CFA) Buried Vent flow and the AEC Butte flow. At the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex, where wastewater would presumably pond on the surface of the water table, the CFA Buried Vent flow probably occurs as the primary stratigraphic unit present; however, AEC Butte flow also could be present at some of the locations. At the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), where contamination from buried wastes would presumably move down through the unsaturated zone and pond on the surface of the water table, the CFA Buried Vent; Late Basal Brunhes; or Early Basal Brunhes basalt flows are the flow unit at or near the water table in different cores.

In the wells closer to where wastewater disposal occurred at INTEC and the ATR-Complex, almost all the wells show wastewater influence in the upper part of the ESRP aquifer and wastewater is present in both the CFA Buried Vent flow and AEC Butte flow. The CFA Buried Vent flow and AEC Butte flow are also present in wells at and north of CFA and are all influenced by wastewater contamination. All wells with the AEC Butte flow present have wastewater influence and 83 percent of the wells with the more prevalent CFA Buried Vent flow have wastewater influence. South and southeast of CFA, most wells are not influenced by wastewater disposal and are completed in the Big Lost Flow and the CFA Buried Vent flow. Wells southwest of CFA are influenced by wastewater disposal and are completed in the Big Lost flow and CFA Buried Vent flow at the top of the aquifer. Basalt stratigraphy indicates that the CFA Buried Vent flow is the predominant flow in the upper part of the ESRP aquifer at and near the RWMC as it is present in all the wells in this area. The Late Basal Brunhes flow, Middle Basal Brunhes flow, Early Basal Brunhes flow, South Late Matuyama flow, and Matuyama flow are also present in various wells influenced by waste disposal.

Some wells south of RWMC do not show wastewater influence, and the lack of wastewater influence could be due to low hydraulic conductivities. Several wells south and southeast of CFA also do not show wastewater influence. Low hydraulic conductivities or ESRP subsidence are possible causes for lack of wastewater south of CFA.

Multilevel monitoring wells completed much deeper in the aquifer show influence of wastewater in numerous basalt flows. Well Middle 2051 (northwest of RWMC) does not show wastewater influence in its upper three basalt flows (CFA Buried Vent, Late Basal Brunhes, and Middle Basal Brunhes); however, wastewater is present in two deeper flows (the Matuyama and Jaramillo flows). Well USGS 131A (southwest of CFA) and USGS132 (south of RWMC) both show wastewater influence in all the basalt flows sampled in the upper 600 feet of the aquifer. Wells USGS 137A, 105, 108, and 103 completed along the southern boundary of the INL all show wastewater influence in several basalt flows including the G flow, Middle and Early Basal Brunhes flows, the South Late Matuyama flow and the Matuyama flow; however, the strongest wastewater influence appears to be in the South Late Matuyama flow. The concentrations of wastewater constituents in deeper parts of these wells support the concept of groundwater flow deepening in the southwestern part of the INL.

Bartholomay and others

Title

An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2012–15

Authors

Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail, Gordon W. RattrayORCiDEmail, and Jason C. FisherORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Bartholomay, R.C., Maimer, N.V., Rattray, G.W., and Fisher, J.C., 2017, An update of hydrologic conditions and distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2012-15: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017–5021 (DOE/ID–22242), 87 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175021.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{BartholomayOthers2017b,
  title = {An update of hydrologic conditions and
    distribution of selected constituents in water, eastern
    Snake River Plain aquifer and perched groundwater zones,
    Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, emphasis 2012--15},
  author = {Roy C. Bartholomay and Neil V. Maimer and Gordon
    W. Rattray and Jason C. Fisher},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2017},
  number = {2017--5021 (DOE/ID--22242)},
  pages = {87},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20175021},
}

Abstract

Since 1952, wastewater discharged to infiltration ponds (also called percolation ponds) and disposal wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has affected water quality in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer and perched groundwater zones underlying the INL. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, maintains groundwater-monitoring networks at the INL to determine hydrologic trends and to delineate the movement of radiochemical and chemical wastes in the aquifer and in perched groundwater zones. This report presents an analysis of water-level and water-quality data collected from the ESRP aquifer, multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) wells in the ESRP aquifer, and perched groundwater wells in the USGS groundwater monitoring networks during 2012-15.

Twining and others

Title

Drilling, construction, geophysical log data, and lithologic log for boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Brian V. TwiningORCiDEmail, Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail, Kyle L. Schusler, and Christopher Mudge

Suggested citation

Twining, B.V., Hodges, M.K.V., Schusler, Kyle, and Mudge, Christopher, 2017, Drilling, construction, geophysical log data, and lithologic log for boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1058 (DOE/ID-22243), 21 p., plus appendixes, https://doi.org/10.3133/ds1058.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{TwiningOthers2017,
  title = {Drilling, construction, geophysical log data,
    and lithologic log for boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A,
    Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Brian V. Twining and Mary K.V. Hodges and Kyle
    L. Schusler and Christopher Mudge},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Data Series},
  year = {2017},
  number = {1058 (DOE/ID--22243)},
  pages = {21},
  doi = {10.3133/ds1058},
}

Abstract

Starting in 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, drilled and constructed boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory in southeast Idaho. Borehole USGS 142 initially was cored to collect rock and sediment core, then re-drilled to complete construction as a screened water-level monitoring well. Borehole USGS 142A was drilled and constructed as a monitoring well after construction problems with borehole USGS 142 prevented access to upper 100 feet (ft) of the aquifer. Boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A are separated by about 30 ft and have similar geology and hydrologic characteristics. Groundwater was first measured near 530 feet below land surface (ft BLS) at both borehole locations. Water levels measured through piezometers, separated by almost 1,200 ft, in borehole USGS 142 indicate upward hydraulic gradients at this location. Following construction and data collection, screened water-level access lines were placed in boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A to allow for recurring water level measurements.

Borehole USGS 142 was cored continuously, starting at the first basalt contact (about 4.9 ft BLS) to a depth of 1,880 ft BLS. Excluding surface sediment, recovery of basalt, rhyolite, and sediment core at borehole USGS 142 was approximately 89 percent or 1,666 ft of total core recovered. Based on visual inspection of core and geophysical data, material examined from 4.9 to 1,880 ft BLS in borehole USGS 142 consists of approximately 45 basalt flows, 16 significant sediment and (or) sedimentary rock layers, and rhyolite welded tuff. Rhyolite was encountered at approximately 1,396 ft BLS. Sediment layers comprise a large percentage of the borehole between 739 and 1,396 ft BLS with grain sizes ranging from clay and silt to cobble size. Sedimentary rock layers had calcite cement. Basalt flows ranged in thickness from about 2 to 100 ft and varied from highly fractured to dense, and ranged from massive to diktytaxitic to scoriaceous, in texture.

Geophysical logs were collected on completion of drilling at boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A. Geophysical logs were examined with available core material to describe basalt, sediment and sedimentary rock layers, and rhyolite. Natural gamma logs were used to confirm sediment layer thickness and location; neutron logs were used to examine basalt flow units and changes in hydrogen content; gamma-gamma density logs were used to describe general changes in rock properties; and temperature logs were used to understand hydraulic gradients for deeper sections of borehole USGS 142. Gyroscopic deviation was measured to record deviation from true vertical at all depths in boreholes USGS 142 and USGS 142A.

2016

Bartholomay and Hall

Title

Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail and L. Flint Hall

Suggested citation

Bartholomay, R.C., and Hall, L.F., 2016, Evaluation of background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5056 (DOE/ID–22237), 19 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20165056.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{BartholomayHall2016,
  title = {Evaluation of background concentrations of
    selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in
    water from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and
    near the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Roy C. Bartholomay and L. Flint Hall},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2016},
  number = {2016--5056 (DOE/ID--22237)},
  pages = {87},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20165056},
}

Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho Department of Environmental Quality Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Oversight Program in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy determined background concentrations of selected chemical and radiochemical constituents in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer to aid with ongoing cleanup efforts at the INL. Chemical and radiochemical constituents including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silica, chloride, sulfate, fluoride, bicarbonate, chromium, nitrate, tritium, strontium-90, chlorine-36, iodine-129, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), americium-241, technetium-99, uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238 were selected for the background study because they were either not analyzed in earlier studies or new data became available to give a more recent determination of background concentrations. Samples of water collected from wells and springs at and near the INL that were not believed to be influenced by wastewater disposal were used to identify background concentrations. Groundwater in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the INL was divided into two major water types (western tributary and eastern regional) based on concentrations of lithium less than and greater than 5 micrograms per liter (µg/L). Median concentrations for each constituent were used to define the upper limit of background.

The upper limit of background concentrations for inorganic chemicals for western tributary water was 40.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for calcium, 15.3 mg/L for magnesium, 8.30 mg/L for sodium, 2.32 mg/L for potassium, 23.1 mg/L for silica, 11.8 mg/L for chloride, 21.4 mg/L for sulfate, 0.20 mg/L for fluoride, 176 mg/L for bicarbonate, 4.00 µg/L for chromium, and 0.655 mg/L for nitrate.

The upper limit of background concentrations for inorganic chemicals for eastern regional water was 34.05 mg/L for calcium, 13.85 mg/L for magnesium, 14.85 mg/L for sodium, 3.22 mg/L for potassium, 31.0 mg/L for silica, 14.15 mg/L for chloride, 20.2 mg/L for sulfate, 0.4675 mg/L for fluoride, 165 mg/L for bicarbonate, 3.00 µg/L for chromium, and 0.995 mg/L for nitrate.

The upper limit of background concentrations for radiochemical constituents for western tributary water was 34.15±2.35 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for tritium, 0.00098±0.00006 pCi/L for chlorine-36, 0.000011±0.000005 pCi/L for iodine-129, <0.0000054 pCi/L for technetium-99, 0 pCi/L for strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241, 1.36 pCi/L with undetermined uncertainty for uranium-234, 0.025±0.001 pCi/L for uranium-235, and 0.541±0.001 pCi/L for uranium-238.

The upper limit of background concentrations for radiochemical constituents for eastern regional water was 5.43±0.574 pCi/L for tritium, 0.0002048±0.0000054 pCi/L for chlorine-36, 0.000000865±0.000000015 pCi/L for iodine-129, <0.0000054 pCi/L for technetium-99, 0 pCi/L for strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, -240 (undivided), and americium-241, 1.32±0.77 pCi/L for uranium-234, 0.016±0.012 pCi/L for uranium-235, and 0.477±0.044 pCi/L for uranium-238.

Hodges and Champion

Title

Paleomagnetic correlation of basalt flows in selected coreholes near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and along the southern boundary, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail and Duane E. ChampionORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Hodges, M.K.V., and Champion, D.E., 2016, Paleomagnetic correlation of basalt flows in selected coreholes near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and along the southern boundary, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5131 (DOE/ID–22240), 65 p., 1 pl., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20165131.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{HodgesChampion2016,
  title = {Paleomagnetic correlation of basalt flows in
    selected coreholes near the Advanced Test Reactor
    Complex, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering
    Center, and along the southern boundary, Idaho National
    Laboratory, Idaho},
  author = {Mary K.V. Hodges and Duane E. Champion},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Scientific Investigations Report},
  year = {2016},
  number = {2016--5131 (DOE/ID--22240)},
  pages = {65},
  doi = {10.3133/sir20165131},
}

Abstract

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, used paleomagnetic data from 18 coreholes to construct three cross sections of subsurface basalt flows in the southern part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These cross sections, containing descriptions of the subsurface horizontal and vertical distribution of basalt flows and sediment layers, will be used in geological studies, and to construct numerical models of groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

Subsurface cross sections were used to correlate surface vents to their subsurface flows intersected by coreholes, to correlate subsurface flows between coreholes, and to identify possible subsurface vent locations of subsurface flows. Correlations were identified by average paleomagnetic inclinations of flows, and depth from land surface in coreholes, normalized to the North American Datum of 1927. Paleomagnetic data were combined, in some cases, with other data, such as radiometric ages of flows. Possible vent locations of buried basalt flows were identified by determining the location of the maximum thickness of flows penetrated by more than one corehole.

Flows from the surface volcanic vents Quaking Aspen Butte, Vent 5206, Mid Butte, Lavatoo Butte, Crater Butte, Pond Butte, Vent 5350, Vent 5252, Tin Cup Butte, Vent 4959, Vent 5119, and AEC Butte are found in coreholes, and were correlated to the surface vents by matching their paleomagnetic inclinations, and in some cases, their stratigraphic positions.

Some subsurface basalt flows that do not correlate to surface vents, do correlate over several coreholes, and may correlate to buried vents. Subsurface flows which correlate across several coreholes, but not to a surface vent include the D3 flow, the Big Lost flow, the CFA buried vent flow, the Early, Middle, and Late Basal Brunhes flows, the South Late Matuyama flow, the Matuyama flow, and the Jaramillo flow. The location of vents buried in the subsurface by younger basalt flows can be inferred if their flows are penetrated by several coreholes, by tracing the flows in the subsurface, and determining where the greatest thickness occurs.

Maimer and Bartholomay

Title

Purgeable organic compounds at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2015

Authors

Neil V. MaimerORCiDEmail and Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail

Suggested citation

Maimer, N.V., and Bartholomay, R.C., 2016, Purgeable organic compounds at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2015: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2016–1083 (DOE/ID–22238), 17 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20161083.

BibTeX citation
@TechReport{MaimerBartholomay2016,
  title = {Purgeable organic compounds at or near the
    Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho
    National Laboratory, Idaho, 2015},
  author = {Neil V. Maimer and Roy C. Bartholomay},
  institution = {U.S. Geological Survey},
  type = {Open-File Report},
  year = {2016},
  number = {2016--1083 (DOE/ID--22238)},
  pages = {17},
  doi = {10.3133/ofr20161083},
}

Abstract

During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected groundwater samples from 31 wells at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory for purgeable organic compounds (POCs). The samples were collected and analyzed for the purpose of evaluating whether purge water from wells located inside an areal polygon established downgradient of the INTEC must be treated as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act listed waste.

POC concentrations in water samples from 29 of 31 wells completed in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were greater than their detection limit, determined from detection and quantitation calculation software, for at least one to four POCs. Of the 29 wells with concentrations greater than their detection limits, only 20 had concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting limit as calculated with detection and quantitation calculation software. None of the concentrations exceeded any maximum contaminant levels established for public drinking water supplies. Most commonly detected compounds were 1,1,1-trichoroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene.

McCurry and others

Title

Volcanic geology, hydrogeology, and geothermal potential of the eastern Snake River Plain

Authors

Michael McCurry, Roy C. BartholomayORCiDEmail, Mary K.V. HodgesORCiDEmail, and Robert Podgorney

Suggested citation

McCurry, Michael, Bartholomay, R.C., Hodges, M.K.V., and Podgorney, Robert, 2016, Volcanic geology, hydrogeology, and geothermal potential of the eastern Snake River Plain, in Phillips, W.M., and Moore, D.K., eds., Geology of the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding highlands, Northwest Geology, The Journal of the Tobacco Root Geological Society 41st Annual Field Conference, v. 45, p. 125–154. https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70175381.

BibTeX citation
@InProceedings{MccurryOthers2016,
  title = {Volcanic geology, hydrogeology, and geothermal
    potential of the eastern Snake River Plain},
  booktitle = {Geology of the eastern Snake River Plain and
    surrounding highlands},
  series = {Northwest Geology},
  publisher = {Tobacco Root Geological Society},
  author = {Michael McCurry and Roy C. Bartholomay and Mary
    K.V. Hodges and Robert Podgorney},
  editor = {W. M. Phillips and D. K. Moore},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {45},
  pages = {125--154},
}

Abstract

No abstract available.

Mudge

Title

Properties of Pleistocene sediment in two wells in the west-central portion of the Big Lost Trough, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

Authors

Christopher Mudge

Suggested citation

Mudge, C.M., 2016, Properties of Pleistocene sediment in two wells in the west-central portion of the Big Lost Trough, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho: Idaho State University, Master’s thesis, Pocatello, Idaho, 121 p., https://isu.app.box.com/v/Mudge-2016.

BibTeX citation
@MastersThesis{Mudge2016,
  title = {Properties of Pleistocene sediment in two wells
    in the west-central portion of the Big Lost Trough,
    eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho National Laboratory,
    Idaho},
  author = {Christopher Mudge},
  school = {Idaho State University},
  address = {Pocatello, Idaho},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {121},
}

Abstract

Sediment in cores from drillholes Naval Reactor Facility (NRF) 15 and United States Geologic Survey (USGS) 142 from the northern part of the Big Lost Trough (BLT) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) document an evolution of facies during Early Pleistocene time. Although more than 95% of the upper portions of these cores is basalt, sedimentary intervals, from 520 ft to 595 ft below land surface (BLS) in NRF 15 and from 732 ft to 837 ft BLS in USGS 142 were analyzed for grain size and petrologic analysis. The large difference in depth BLS between USGS 142 and NRF 15 is accounted for by variable subsidence across the BLT. Estimated ages, based on paleomagnetic signatures of the basalt, suggest that the intervals are 884 ka-988 ka. Each interval consists of clay that grades upward to coarse silt and sand. Through grain size analysis and visual inspection of the core each interval is interpreted to represent a lake that shallows upward into shoreline sands and loess.

Three depositional environments can be interpreted from the grain size data in each of these upward coarsening intervals. The lower part of each interval is clay dominated and coarse skewed with average grain-size of 6 to 8 phi. This interval is interpreted as a shallow lake deposit. The intervals then coarsen upward to a fine-skewed silty sand, interpreted as shoreline or eolian sediment. Parts of the upper portions of sedimentary intervals in NRF 15 display bimodal grain size distributions with peaks at 2 and 8 phi; this sediment is interpreted as loess.

Point counting reveals that sands in the shoreline facies are volcanic lithic arenites (58% lithics, and of those 63% are volcanic lithics with 54% of the volcanic lithics being felsitic volcanic grains). These sands are interpreted to reflect transport via the paleo-Big Lost River, and are most likely sourced from the Challis volcanics, which are primarily dacitic and rhyodacitic in composition. The detrital zircons in the sandy intervals at 840 and 780 feet in USGS 142 resemble samples previously described from the Big Lost River. The zircon age spectra have an age peak at 45 Ma that correlates most closely with a Challis volcanic source, and a Neoproterozoic age peak at 675 Ma that correlates with granitic rocks intruded into the Pioneer Mountains core complex.

Nimmo and others

Title

Preferential flow, diffuse flow, and perching in an interbedded fractured-rock unsaturated zone

Authors

John R. NimmoORCiDEmail, Kaitlyn M. Creasey, Kim S. Perkins