kernelshap 0.3.4


kernelshap 0.3.3

Less dependencies

kernelshap 0.3.2


Bug fixes

kernelshap 0.3.1


kernelshap 0.3.0

Major improvements

Exact calculations

Thanks to David Watson, exact calculations are now also possible for \(p>5\) features. By default, the algorithm uses exact calculations for \(p \le 8\) and a hybrid strategy otherwise, see the next section. At the same time, the exact algorithm became much more efficient.

A word of caution: Exact calculations mean to create \(2^p-2\) on-off vectors \(z\) (cheap step) and evaluating the model on a whopping \((2^p-2)N\) rows, where \(N\) is the number of rows of the background data (expensive step). As this explodes with large \(p\), we do not recommend the exact strategy for \(p > 10\).

Hybrid strategy

The iterative Kernel SHAP sampling algorithm of Covert and Lee (2021) [1] works by randomly sample \(m\) on-off vectors \(z\) so that their sum follows the SHAP Kernel weight distribution (renormalized to the range from \(1\) to \(p-1\)). Based on these vectors, many predictions are formed. Then, Kernel SHAP values are derived as the solution of a constrained linear regression, see [1] for details. This is done multiple times until convergence.

A drawback of this strategy is that many (at least 75%) of the \(z\) vectors will have \(\sum z \in \{1, p-1\}\), producing many duplicates. Similarly, at least 92% of the mass will be used for the \(p(p+1)\) possible vectors with \(\sum z \in \{1, 2, p-1, p-2\}\) etc. This inefficiency can be fixed by a hybrid strategy, combining exact calculations with sampling. The hybrid algorithm has two steps:

  1. Step 1 (exact part): There are \(2p\) different on-off vectors \(z\) with \(\sum z \in \{1, p-1\}\), covering a large proportion of the Kernel SHAP distribution. The degree 1 hybrid will list those vectors and use them according to their weights in the upcoming calculations. Depending on \(p\), we can also go a step further to a degree 2 hybrid by adding all \(p(p-1)\) vectors with \(\sum z \in \{2, p-2\}\) to the process etc. The necessary predictions are obtained along with other calculations similar to those in [1].
  2. Step 2 (sampling part): The remaining weight is filled by sampling vectors \(z\) according to Kernel SHAP weights renormalized to the values not yet covered by Step 1. Together with the results from Step 1 - correctly weighted - this now forms a complete iteration as in Covert and Lee (2021). The difference is that most mass is covered by exact calculations. Afterwards, the algorithm iterates until convergence. The output of Step 1 is reused in every iteration, leading to an extremely efficient strategy.

The default behaviour of kernelshap() is as follows:

It is also possible to use a pure sampling strategy, see Section “User visible changes” below. While this is usually not advisable compared to a hybrid approach, the options of kernelshap() allow to study different properties of Kernel SHAP and doing empirical research on the topic.

Kernel SHAP in the Python implementation “shap” uses a quite similar hybrid strategy, but without iterating. The new logic in the R package thus combines the efficiency of the Python implementation with the convergence monitoring of [1].

[1] Ian Covert and Su-In Lee. Improving KernelSHAP: Practical Shapley Value Estimation Using Linear Regression. Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics, PMLR 130:3457-3465, 2021.

User visible changes

Other changes

Bug fixes

kernelshap 0.2.0

Breaking change

The interface of kernelshap() has been revised. Instead of specifying a prediction function, it suffices now to pass the fitted model object. The default pred_fun is now stats::predict, which works in most cases. Some other cases are catched via model class (“ranger” and mlr3 “Learner”). The pred_fun can be overwritten by a function of the form function(object, X, ...). Additional arguments to the prediction function are passed via ... of kernelshap().

Some examples:

Major improvements

User visible changes

Bug fixes

New contributor

kernelshap 0.1.0

This is the initial release.