The patchDVI package

Duncan Murdoch



The patchDVI package works with Sweave (Leisch 2002), knitr (Xie 2013) and R Markdown (Xie, Allaire, and Grolemund 2018) and document previewers to facilitate editing: it modifies the links that are put into the output so that they refer to the original source. It also includes a few project management functions to make large multi-file documents easier to handle, and can include source links (“concordances”) in HTML output from R Markdown. }


Most implementations of LaTeX allow source references to be emitted, so that previewers of the .dvi or .pdf output file can link back to the original source line. This was a feature of the yap previewer for .dvi files in MikTeX (Schenk 2010) for many years. Support for source references has appeared more recently for .pdf output, first in pdfsync. More recently Synctex (Laurens 2008) links have been implemented in pdflatex and other LaTeX processors.

Unfortunately for knitr/Sweave/R Markdown users, these links point to the .tex source that was processed, which is not the true source code in the knitr/Sweave .Rnw or R Markdown .Rmd or other input file. (I will refer to all of these as .Rnw files.) Clicking on “go to source” in a previewer will jump to the .tex file; changes made there will be lost the next time the .Rnw input is processed.

I wrote the patchDVI package to address this problem. It works as follows. If the knitr/Sweave file is processed with the option concordance=TRUE, knitr or Sweave will output a record of the concordance between the lines in the input file and the output file. When the file is processed by LaTeX or Pandoc, this information is embedded in the output. (Details of the embedding are described in sections Concordances to Patching Synctex Files below.) After producing the .dvi or .pdf file, a patchDVI function is run to read the concordance information and to patch the source reference information produced by LaTeX. Once this has been done, previewers will see references to the original .Rnw source rather than the LaTeX intermediate file.

A 2022 addition follows a similar process with R Markdown files. In this case, the output driver in the YAML header needs to be changed, for example to patchDVI::pdf_documentC. The driver automates the steps described above. At the present time there are some notable limitations in R Markdown handling. These are described in R Markdown Instructions.

Besides the technical details mentioned above, this paper describes the history of patchDVI in Section patchDVI History and in section Project Management Functions some project management functions. It concludes with a short discussion.

Quick Start Instructions

There are several ways to make use of patchDVI. This section describes some common ones for Sweave/knitr. Section R Markdown Instructions deals with R Markdown.

In all cases the package needs to be installed first; the current release is on CRAN and can be installed using


Source code is maintained on Github and the latest development version can be installed using

dependencies = TRUE)

With .Rnw files for knitr or Sweave, the document also needs to have an option set to produce the “concordances” (links between the .Rnw source and the .tex output of knitr/Sweave). If you are using knitr, include these lines in a code chunk in your document:

opts_knit$set(concordance = TRUE)

For Sweave, put these lines outside of a code chunk near the start of your document:


The simplest way to proceed is from within R. Assuming doc.Rnw is the knitr/Sweave document to process and it is in the current working directory, run




This runs doc.Rnw through knitr/Sweave, runs any other chapters in the project through knitr/Sweave, then runs the main .tex file (typically doc.tex, but not necessarily; see section Project Management Functions below) through pdflatex, and patches the source links. To produce DVI output instead of PDF substitute knitDVI for knitPDF, and to use latex and dvipdfm to produce PDF output, use knitDVIPDFM. If you are using MikTeX on Windows, the functions knitPDFMiktex and knitMiktex correspond to the first two of these respectively, and use a few MikTeX-specific features.

These functions all have an optional argument preview, which can contain a command line to run a .pdf or .dvi previewer (with the filename replaced by %s). The .pdf previewer should be one that can handle Synctex links; unfortunately, Acrobat Reader and MacOS Preview are both deficient in this area. On Windows, SumatraPDF works, as do the built-in previewers in TeXShop and TeXworks on MacOS X and other platforms.

MikTeX includes the yap previewer for .dvi files; the knitMiktex command sets it as the default.

Another way to proceed is directly from within your text editor. The instructions here depend on your editor; I have included a few in the Appendices: TeXShop in Using patchDVI with TeXShop, WinEdt in Using patchDVI with WinEdt, and TeXworks in Using patchDVI with TeXworks. Some editors (e.g. TeXShop and TeXworks) include a previewer that can handle the source links.

Finally, you may want to run knitr from the command line, outside of R. This line (or the obvious variants with replacements for knitPDF) should do it:

Rscript -e 'patchDVI::knitPDF("doc.Rnw")'

R Markdown Instructions

The most recent addition to patchDVI is support for R Markdown input. R Markdown (Allaire et al. 2022) has become very popular in recent years, with .Rmd input nowadays exceeding the popularity of Sweave-style .Rnw input. The general structure is that each file contains a ``YAML header’’ giving configuration information, and this is followed by a mix of text in a Markdown dialect and code in R or another language.

To use patchDVI with R Markdown, you will currently need the development version. This may be installed using

remotes::install_github("dmurdoch/patchDVI", dependencies = TRUE)

With that version installed, you then change the output setting in the YAML. If it was pdf_document, use

output: patchDVI::pdf_documentC

instead. If it was html_document, use

output RmdConcord::html_documentC

That should be all that is necessary to enable concordances and to carry out the necessary patching. Almost all options in the original drivers are supported in these replacements, plus a few more. See the help pages for details.

One possible snag is that R Markdown conversions rely on Pandoc. If you are processing your document from within RStudio, RStudio will make sure that Pandoc is found, but if you are working in another environment, it will be up to you to make sure R can find it. One way to do this is to add the Pandoc directory to your PATH; another is to make a link to Pandoc from a directory that is already on your PATH.

It is also possible to use analogs of the SweavePDF/knitPDF family of functions; the ones intended for Markdown source are renderMiktex, renderPDFMiktex, renderDVI, renderPDF, renderDVIPDFM and renderAll.

Known limitations of Markdown support

The Markdown support relies on a relatively recent addition to Pandoc, the sourcepos extension. At present (Pandoc 2.19.2 as included in RStudio), this extension only works with the Commonmark reader, whereas by default, Pandoc uses its own dialect of Markdown. To enable concordances, patchDVI switches the Pandoc input setting to commonmark_x+sourcepos.

Unfortunately, the commonmark_x reader doesn’t support most of the extensions that the standard markdown reader supports. This page: should list the current status. For the definitions of the extensions, see the Pandoc documentation at

Of particular note are the lack of citations and raw_tex. Citations in Markdown source like [@Author] will not currently be processed in Commonmark, though support for this is planned at some future time. Raw LaTeX will need to be “fenced”, e.g. entered as


(The \pagebreak and \newpage macros receive special treatment, so they don’t need fencing as long as they are separated by blank lines from text above and below.) The “roadmap” indicates that raw LaTeX will never be supported in Commonmark, as it is incompatible.

patchDVI History

Initially patchDVI only worked for .dvi files (hence the name). It required changes to the Sweave function in R, which first appeared around the release of R version 2.5.0. with incompatible changes in R version 2.8.0 when .pdf support was added to patchDVI.

Using patchDVI requires a pre-processing step (knitr/Sweave), LaTeX processing, and a post-processing step (patching). This is usually followed by a preview of the resulting output file. It quickly became apparent that it was convenient to package these steps into a single R function, so the user only needed to make a single call. But the details of LaTeX processing vary from platform to platform, so I wrote functions SweaveMiktex and SweavePDFMiktex specific to the MikTex platform, with the intention of adding others as I used them or users told me what needed adding. This never happened, but in the meantime, Brian Ripley made the tools::texi2dvi() function in R much more flexible, and in version 1.7 of patchDVI I included a modified version of it with the hope that patchDVI should be more nearly platform neutral.

The 1.7 release was motivated by an attempt to support TeXworks (Kew 2008), a cross-platform LaTeX targetted editor. TeXworks was still in its early days (I was working with version 0.2 on Windows), and it did not have enough flexibility to handle large knitr/Sweave projects, where for example, each chapter of a book requires separate knitr/Sweave processing, but LaTeX processes only a main wrapper file. This prompted me to include more make-style capabilities into patchDVI. It is now possible to specify a list of knitr/Sweave input files to process (optionally only if they have changed since the last processing) and the main wrapper file, all within code chunks in a single file, using the knitAll()/SweaveAll() functions.

The SweaveDVIPDFM() function followed later. For English language processing, I find pdflatex to be the most convenient processor, but it does not work well in languages like Japanese. During a visit to the Institute of Statistical Mathematics in Tokyo I learned of the issues, and with the help of Prof. H. Okumura and Junji Nakano I worked out SweaveDVIPDFM() to handle the two step conversion to PDF.

In 2015 I added support for other non-Sweave processors, such as knitr, and in 2020 improved the documentation for knitr users. The most recent addition is the support for R Markdown in 2022.


knitr/Sweave processes the code chunks in the .Rnw file, replacing each with the requested output from the command. This means that the output .tex file alternates between copied LaTeX source and newly produced blocks of output. Each line in the .tex file can thus be mapped to one or more lines of input, and that is what the concordance does.

Technical description of concordance records

The concordance records are text records in the following format. There are four parts, separated by colons:

  1. The label concordance to indicate the type of record.
  2. The output .tex filename.
  3. The input .Rnw filename.
  4. The input line numbers corresponding to each output line.

The third component is compressed using a simple encoding: The first number is the first line number; the remainder of line numbers are a run-length encoding of the differences. Thus if the input file is as shown here:

Line number Input text
1 \SweaveOpts{concordance=TRUE}
2 This is text
3 <<>>=
4 123
5 @
6 This is more text

the output file would be as shown below, with the concordance as shown there in the second column.

Output line Input line Output text
1 1 \input{sample-concordance}
2 2 This is text.
3 4 \begin{Schunk}
4 4 \begin{Sinput}
5 4 > 123
6 4 \end{Sinput}
7 4 \begin{Soutput}
8 4 [1] 123
9 4 \end{Soutput}
10 4 \end{Schunk}
11 6 This is more text

This concordance would be recorded in the file sample-concordance.tex as

1 1 1 1 2 7 0 1 2}

The numeric part of this file may be interpreted as shown below:

Values Interpretation Expansion
1 line 1 1
1 1 1 increase of 1 2
1 2 1 increase of 2 4
7 0 7 increases of 0 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1 2 1 increase of 2 6

The same format for concordance records is used in R Markdown, but when the output format is HTML, the target file is skipped and it is wrapped in an HTML comment instead, e.g.

<!-- concordance::sample.Rnw:1 1 1 1 2 7 0 1 2 -->

Patching .dvi Files

The \Sconcordance macro expands to a \special macro when producing a .dvi file. This is included verbatim in the .dvi file. The concordance: prefix identifies it as a patchDVI concordance. The patchDVI() function scans the whole file until it finds this sort of record. (There may be more than one, if multiple files make up the document.) Source references are also recorded by LaTeX in \special records; their prefix is src:. The patchDVI() function reads each src: special and if it refers to a file in a concordance: special, makes the substitution. At the end, it rewrites the whole .dvi file.

Patching .synctex Files

When using pdflatex, the \Sconcordance macro expands to a \pdfobj macro containing the concordance, which eventually is embedded in the .pdf file. However, the Synctex scheme of source references does not write the references to the .pdf file directly. Instead, they are written to a separate file with extension .synctex, or a compressed version of that file, with extension .synctex.gz. The patchSynctex() function reads the concordances from either the .pdf file (when pdflatex was used) or the .dvi file, and the source references from the Synctex file. It rewrites only the Synctex file when it makes its changes.

Patching .html Files

If R Markdown has an HTML target, the concordances are embedded by Pandoc in span and div markup, e.g.

<span data-pos="">This</span>

The driver reads the data-pos attributes, works out the corresponding line from the true source file, and rewrites the concordances using the concordance record in a comment as described at the end of Section Technical description of concordance records.

Currently I am only aware of one use for these values: the HTML Tidy checks done in R 4.3.x will report the original source lines in the .Rmd file. If I become aware of other uses for these records, it seems likely this format will need to change.

Project Management Functions

As mentioned above, there are a number of steps involved in running patchDVI with a complex knitr/Sweave project:

  1. Run knitr/Sweave on each input file.
  2. Run LaTeX on the main wrapper file.
  3. Run the appropriate patchDVI() function on the output file.
  4. Preview or print the result.

Moreover, step 1 needs to be repeated once for each .Rnw file, but only if the content has changed since the last run, while the other steps need only be done once.

To manage this complication, the patchDVI package includes simple project management functions, knitAll(), renderAll() and SweaveAll(). These are really the same function with different defaults, and will be described in terms of SweaveAll(). This function runs Sweave on multiple files and determines the name of the main wrapper file. It is used internally by the functions described in The Complete Process below, but can also be called directly by the user.

Here is how it works. SweaveAll() takes a vector of filenames as input, and runs Sweave on each. After each run, it examines the global environment for the four variables .PostSweaveHook, .SweaveFiles, .SweaveMake and .TexRoot. (The first three variables can instead be named .PostKnitHook, .knitFiles, .knitMake. If both versions are present, the choice is undefined, so don’t do that.)

A code chunk in a .Rnw file may produce a function (or the name of a function; is used to look it up) named .PostSweaveHook. If present, this should be a function taking a single argument. Immediately after running Sweave, SweaveAll() will call this function, passing the name of the .tex output file as the only argument. The hook can do any required postprocessing, for example, it could remove local pathnames from output strings.

The optional parameter PostSweaveHook to the SweaveAll() function can provide a default hook function. Hooks specified using the .PostSweaveHook variable take precedence in any given input file.

SweaveAll() will also use the character variable named .SweaveFiles. It should contain the names of .Rnw files in the project. If no corresponding .tex file exists, or the .Rnw file is newer, they will be run through Sweave. They may in turn name additional .Rnw files to process; each file is processed only once, even if it is named several times.

There is an optional parameter named make to the SweaveAll() function. If make == 1 (the default), things proceed as described above. If make == 0, the .SweaveFiles variable is ignored, and only the explicitly named files in the call to SweaveAll() are processed. If make == 2, then all files are processed, whether they are newer than their .tex file or not. The .SweaveMake variable will override the value of make.

An .Rnw file may also set the value of .TexRoot to the name of a .tex file. If it does, then that is the file that should be passed to LaTeX for processing. If none is given, then the first file in the call to SweaveAll() will be assumed to be the root file. (If multiple different .TexRoot variables are specified by different .Rnw files, one of them will be used, but it is hard to predict which: so don’t do that.) Whichever file is determined to be the root file is the name returned by the SweaveAll() call.

SweaveAll() is called by all of the functions described in The Complete Process below to do step 1 of the patchDVI steps.

The workflow this is designed for is as follows. Each .Rnw chapter (named for example chapter.Rnw) in a large project should specify the .TexRoot, e.g. using the code chunk

 .TexRoot <- "wrapper.tex"

Similarly, the wrapper file (named for example wrapper.Rnw) should be a .Rnw file that sets .SweaveFiles to the complete list of files in the project. Then one can build an initial copy of the entire document by calling any of knitPDF, SweavePDF, renderPDF, knitMiktex, SweaveMiktex, renderMiktex, knitDVI, SweaveDVI, renderDVI, knitDVIPDFM, SweaveDVIPDFM, renderDVIPDFM with argument "wrapper.Rnw". Later, while one is working on chapter.Rnw, one can call one of those functions with argument "chapter.Rnw" and the chapter will be processed through the full sequence, without running knitr/Sweave/R Markdown on the other chapters.

More complicated schemes are possible. For example:

The Complete Process

The patchDVI package contains five functions for each of knitr, R Markdown and Sweave designed to run all four of the steps listed at the start of this section.

The functions are all named in the same style: Stage1Stage2, where Stage1 is one of knit, render, or Sweave, and Stage2 is one of DVI, Miktex, PDF, PDFMiktex, dvipdfm. The full list was given near the end of the introduction to Section Project Management Functions. The Stage1 parts specify the initial processor as being knitr::knit, Sweave, or rmarkdown::render. The Stage2 part specifies how the resulting .tex files are processed: knitDVI and knitMiktex and related functions produce .dvi files in the general case and for MikTeX respectively; knitPDF and knitPDFMiktex and friends do the same for direct .pdf output from pdflatex. Finally, knitDVIPDFM and related functions run the two-step conversion using first latex and then dvipdfm.

In each case, the LaTeX processing functions are customizable.

For example, a few years ago I had a text editor that allowed me to call external functions with arguments depending on the name of the current file and the line number within it. I had it call a Windows batch file with the line set as argument %1 and the filename set as argument %2; the batch file invoked R using the command line

echo patchDVI::SweaveMiktex('%2',
    preview='yap -1 -s"%1%2" "\x25s"')
    | Rterm --slave

(all on one long line). This passed the current file to SweaveMiktex(), and set the preview command to use the yap options -1 to update the current view (rather than opening a new window), and to jump to the line corresponding to the editor line. The code "\x25s" is simply "%s" encoded without an explicit percent sign, which would be misinterpreted by the Windows command processor. When patchDVI calls the previewer, the main .dvi filename will be substituted for %s.

Installing or Loading Packages

In a complex project, there are often a number of different packages required. When updating R, you may end up with a tedious exercise to make sure these are all installed and updated.

The needsPackages() function helps with this. It takes a character vector naming packages that will be used in the current document. By default, it installs any that are not already installed. Optionally, it can update them using update.packages(), load them, or attach them to the search list. For example, this document uses no packages other than patchDVI itself, so it could have


near the start to ensure it is available, if this wasn’t a nonsensical statement. (Why would you be able to run it if patchDVI wasn’t already installed?)


As described in this vignette, the patchDVI package is a convenient way to work with knitr/Sweave in a modern setting, allowing fast switching from source input to preview. It also offers some features to make the management of larger projects easier.

Other possibilities may exist to make use of the code in this package. In order to read and patch .dvi, .pdf and .synctex files, patchDVI includes code to work with each of those formats. Users may find imaginative uses for this capability, which I’ve tried to leave in general form. The low-level .dvi editing is done by C functions called from R, while the PDF related work is done in pure R code.


Using patchDVI with TeXShop

TeXShop is a nice LaTeX editor on MacOS. Dave Gabrielson of the University of Manitoba helped me to work out these instructions. I have updated them in December, 2013 for TeXShop 2.47.

  1. In Preferences -- Typesetting -- Sync Method, choose SyncTeX.
  2. Instructions depend on which language you are using.
    1. To use with Sweave, create a file called Library/TeXShop/Engines/Sweave.engine in your home directory containing the lines below. Give it executable permissions. Replace <locale> with your locale string, e.g. en_CA.UTF-8 for Canadian English using UTF-8 encoding. The locale line can be omitted if you only use plain ASCII characters, but is probably necessary for other cases.
    export LC_ALL=<locale>
    Rscript -e "patchDVI::SweavePDF('$1')"
    1. To use with knitr, create a file called Library/TeXShop/Engines/knitr.engine in your home directory containing the lines below, and give it executable permissions. Replace <locale> with your locale string, e.g. en_CA.UTF-8 for Canadian English using UTF-8 encoding. The locale line can be omitted if you only use plain ASCII characters, but is probably necessary for other cases.
    export LC_ALL=<locale>
    Rscript -e "patchDVI::knitPDF('$1',\
        envir = globalenv())"
    1. To use with R Markdown, create a file called Library/TeXShop/Engines/markdown.engine in your home directory, and give it executable permissions. Replace <locale> with your locale string, e.g. en_CA.UTF-8 for Canadian English using UTF-8 encoding. The locale line can be omitted if you only use plain ASCII characters, but is probably necessary for other cases.
    export LC_ALL=<locale>
    Rscript -e "patchDVI::renderPDF('$1',\
      envir = globalenv())"
    1. For other vignette engines, use a weave argument in the above, as appropriate.
  3. Install the patchDVI package into R.
  4. When editing a .Rnw file in TeXShop, choose the knitr or Sweave engine from the menu; for .Rmd files, use the markdown engine.
  5. If you have multiple files in your project, your main file must be a .Rnw file (e.g. Main.Rnw) which lists all .Rnw files in a .SweaveFiles variable, and you need to add the line
%!TEX root = Main.Rnw

to each subordinate file. 6. For Sweave, add the \SweaveOpts{concordance=TRUE} line to your document. For knitr, add a code chunk similar to this:


somewhere near the start of your document.

The TeXShop previewer supports SyncTeX; you right click in the preview, and choose Sync from the menu to jump to your source location.

Using patchDVI with TeXworks

TeXworks is an editor for multiple platforms, somewhat similar to TeXShop. These instructions have been tested in version 0.4.5, with MikTeX 2.9 on Windows, and version 0.6.2 from MacTeX on MacOS.

NB: Some versions of TeXworks had a bug in setting the HOME directory of the user. With those versions, R will not find a locally installed copy of patchDVI. To work around the bug, set the R_USER environment variable to your Windows home directory, e.g. R_USER=C:/Users/Murdoch.

TeXworks can work with the patchDVI project management features using a script to tell it to process the current file through knitr/Sweave, but preview the main file. See the instructions below for my current best attempt at such a script. It can also use the TeXShop approach of specifying the TEX root file to be a .Rnw file.

The instructions are given first for Sweave, then below for knitr.

  1. Add a new SweavePDF command: In Edit | Preferences | Typesetting click on the + sign near the bottom. Set the name of the tool to be SweavePDF. Set the program to Rscript, and add two arguments, one per line:
    1. -e
    2. patchDVI::SweavePDF('$fullname')
  2. Install the patchDVI package into R.
  3. Tell TeXworks to open Sweave files by editing the file pattern configuration file texworks-config.txt. This file is found via the Help | Settings and Resources... | Resources menu entry. I have this line there:
file-open-filter:   TeX documents (*.Rnw *.Rmd *.tex)
  1. When editing a .Rnw file in TeXworks, choose the SweavePDF engine from the menu.
  2. Add the \SweaveOpts{concordance=TRUE} line to your document.
  3. If you are using the project management features of patchDVI and are editing a subordinate file, TeXworks will not open or update the PDF preview after it processes changes. There are four workarounds for this.

The simplest is to manually open the .pdf file the first time. After that it will be updated automatically. Unfortunately, if you happen to be editing the main file, the .pdf will be opened automatically, and then updates won’t happen if you later edit a subordinate file.

The next simplest is the TeXShop approach: include a line

%!TEX root = Main.Rnw

near the top of the file, and make sure that Main.Rnw refers to all subordinate Sweave files.

To use TeXworks with knitr, the instructions are very similar to those above, but with two changes.

In step 1, replace the second line of the command (the SweavePDF() call) with the following longer command, all on one line:

patchDVI::knitPDF('$fullname', envir = globalenv())

In step 5, insert the following code chunk into your file:


To use TeXworks with R Markdown, make these changes:

In step 1, replace the second line of the command (the SweavePDF() call) with the following:

patchDVI::renderPDF('$fullname', envir = globalenv(), output_format = "patchDVI::pdf_documentC")

Using patchDVI with WinEdt

WinEdt is a Windows editor with LaTeX support. The configuration options have changed a number of times; I do not know how to implement these instructions in the latest version. These instructions apply to version 5.5, and assume you are using it with MikTeX.

  1. In Options -- Execution Modes choose Texify, and click on Browse for Executable. Find the Rscript executable in your R installation, directory bin/i386 or bin/x64, and choose it. In the Switches line, put

and in the Parameters line, put

"patchDVI::SweaveMiktex('%n%t', '%N.tex')"

The quotes are necessary! 2. Do the same for the PDF Texify command, replacing SweaveMiktex with SweavePDFMiktex. 3. In Options -- Execution modes, make sure Start Viewer and Forward Search are selected for LaTeX and PDF LaTeX.

When you preview a file in yap, double clicking should jump back to the editor. If it doesn’t (or it opens the wrong editor), while you’re in yap choose View -- Options -- Inverse DVI search. You should see WinEdt (auto-detected) as an option; if so, select it. If not, create a new entry for WinEdt, and for the command line, put in

"path\to\winedt.exe" "[Open(|%f|);SelPar(%l,8)]"

after editing the path as necessary.

Using patchDVI with RStudio

RStudio is a very nice front end for working in R and with individual .Rnw or Markdown files. If you are using it, I’m going to assume you’re using knitr as well, and these instructions have been worked out for that combination.

RStudio is less flexible than the other editors for specifying customized processing of a file, so these instructions were worked out assuming that you already have it configured for knitr. It is probably possible to do something similar for Sweave; I just haven’t tried.

You need to set up your individual chapter files as for TeXShop/TeXworks, i.e. with a

%!TEX root = Main.Rnw

comment at the top of each. This tells RStudio to run knitr on the main file when you click Compile PDF. (It will also work if you use the knitr style

%!RNW root = Main.Rnw

but then your files won’t work in TeXShop/TeXworks.)

In the main file, you need a code chunk containing a line to set the .SweaveFiles variable naming all chapter files (but not the main file), and then running knitInRStudio():

.SweaveFiles <- c("a.Rnw", "b.Rnw")

It is safe to put these lines in your file even if you sometimes process it in a different way: if you are not in RStudio, knitInRStudio() does nothing.

One remaining issue with this approach is that you won’t see the knitr progress messages from knitting the chapter files. If you want to see those messages, add the chunk option childOutput = TRUE to the code chunk holding this code.


Allaire, JJ, Yihui Xie, Jonathan McPherson, Javier Luraschi, Kevin Ushey, Aron Atkins, Hadley Wickham, Joe Cheng, Winston Chang, and Richard Iannone. 2022. Rmarkdown: Dynamic Documents for r.
Kew, Jonathan. 2008. TeXworks: Lowering the Barrier to Entry.” TUGBoat 29: 362–64.
Laurens, Jerôme. 2008. “Direct and Reverse Synchronization with SyncTEX.” TUGBoat 29: 365–71.
Leisch, Friedrich. 2002. “Sweave: Dynamic Generation of Statistical Reports Using Literate Data Analysis.” In Compstat 2002 — Proceedings in Computational Statistics, edited by Wolfgang Härdle and Bernd Rönz, 575–80. Physica Verlag, Heidelberg.
Schenk, Christian. 2010. “About MikTeX.”
Xie, Yihui. 2013. Dynamic Documents with R and Knitr. Chapman; Hall/CRC.
Xie, Yihui, J. J. Allaire, and Garrett Grolemund. 2018. R Markdown: The Definitive Guide. Boca Raton, Florida: Chapman; Hall/CRC.