tipr: Tipping Point Analyses
The strength of evidence provided by epidemiological and observational
studies is inherently limited by the potential for unmeasured confounding.
We focus on three key quantities: the observed bound of the confidence interval
closest to the null, a plausible residual effect size for an unmeasured continuous
or binary confounder, and a realistic mean difference or prevalence difference for
this hypothetical confounder. Building on the methods put forth by
Lin, Psaty, & Kronmal (1998) <doi:10.2307/2533848>, we can use these quantities to
assess how an unmeasured confounder may tip our result to insignificance, rendering the
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