# Uniform sampling in a convex hull

#### 2022-03-11

As an illustration of the uniformly package, we will show how to uniformly sample some points in a convex hull.

We give an illustration in dimension 3 (in dimension 2, use the function runif_in_polygon).

Let’s store the vertices of an icosahedron in a matrix vs:

vs <- t(rgl::icosahedron3d()\$vb[1:3,])
#>          [,1]      [,2] [,3]
#> [1,] 0.000000  0.618034    1
#> [2,] 0.000000  0.618034   -1
#> [3,] 0.000000 -0.618034    1
#> [4,] 0.000000 -0.618034   -1
#> [5,] 0.618034  1.000000    0
#> [6,] 0.618034 -1.000000    0

The icosahedron is convex, therefore its convex hull is itself.

The delaunayn function of the geometry package calculates a “triangulation” (tetrahedralization in dimension 3) of the convex hull of a set of points. We use it to get a tetrahedralization of our icoshaedron:

library(geometry)
tetrahedra <- delaunayn(vs, options="Qz")
#>      [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4]
#> [1,]    6    1    5    9
#> [2,]    6    3    1    9
#> [3,]    6    3    1   10
#> [4,]    6   12    4    2
#> [5,]    6   11    4    2
#> [6,]    6   11    5    9

Each row of the tetrahedra matrix is a vector of four identifiers of the vertices defining a tetrahedron.

Now, we calculate the volumes of each of these tetrahedra with the volume_tetrahedron function:

library(uniformly)
volumes <-
apply(tetrahedra, 1,
function(t){
volume_tetrahedron(vs[t,], vs[t,], vs[t,], vs[t,])
})

We normalize the volumes:

probs <- volumes/sum(volumes)

Now, here is the algorithm to uniformly sample a point in the icosahedron:

• select a tetrahedron at random, with probability given by the normalized volumes;

• uniformly sample a point in the picked tetrahedron.

That is:

i <- sample.int(nrow(tetrahedra), 1, prob=probs)
th <- tetrahedra[i,]
runif_in_tetrahedron(1, vs[th,], vs[th,], vs[th,], vs[th,])
#>           [,1]      [,2]       [,3]
#> [1,] 0.1617106 0.4450081 -0.3431492

Let’s use the algorithm to sample 100 random points:

nsims <- 100
sims <- matrix(NA_real_, nrow=nsims, ncol=3)
for(k in 1:nsims){
th <- tetrahedra[sample.int(nrow(tetrahedra), 1, prob=probs),]
sims[k,] <- runif_in_tetrahedron(1, vs[th,], vs[th,], vs[th,], vs[th,])
}
library(rgl)
open3d(windowRect=c(100,100,600,600))
#> wgl
#>   1
points3d(sims)
rglwidget()

We can proceed in the same way in higher dimension, using the functions volume_simplex and runif_in_simplex instead of the functions volume_tetrahedron and runif_in_tetrahedron.

## Sampling from a triangulated object

Note that the convexity is not the sine qua non condition to apply the above procedure: the ingredient we need is the “triangulation” of the object. We took a convex shape because delaunayn provides the triangulation of a convex shape.

Let’s give an example for a 3D star. Here is the star:

vs <- rbind(
c(7.889562, 1.150329, -2.173651),
c(2.212808, 1.150329, -2.230414),
c(0.068023, 1.150328, -7.923502),
c(-2.151306, 1.150329, -2.254857),
c(-7.817406, 1.150328, -2.261558),
c(-3.523133, 1.150328, 1.888122),
c(-4.869315, 1.150328, 6.987552),
c(-0.006854, 1.150329, 4.473047),
c(4.838127, 1.150328, 7.041885),
c(3.538153, 1.150329, 1.927652),
c(0.033757, 0.000000, -0.314657),
c(0.035668, 2.269531, -0.312831)
)
faces <- rbind(
c(1, 11, 2),
c(2, 11, 3),
c(3, 11, 4),
c(4, 11, 5),
c(5, 11, 6),
c(6, 11, 7),
c(7, 11, 8),
c(8, 11, 9),
c(9, 11, 10),
c(10, 11, 1),
c(1, 12, 10),
c(10, 12, 9),
c(9, 12, 8),
c(8, 12, 7),
c(7, 12, 6),
c(6, 12, 5),
c(5, 12, 4),
c(4, 12, 3),
c(3, 12, 2),
c(2, 12, 1)
)
open3d(windowRect=c(100,100,600,600))
#> wgl
#>   2
for(i in 1:nrow(faces)){
triangles3d(rbind(
vs[faces[i,1],],
vs[faces[i,2],],
vs[faces[i,3],]),
color="red", alpha=0.4)
}
rglwidget()

This star is not convex but it is star-shaped with respect to its centroid, and its faces are triangular. Therefore we get a tetrahedralization by joining the centroid to each of the triangular faces.

Let’s calculate the volumes of these tetrahedra:

centroid <- colMeans(vs)
volumes <- apply(faces, 1,function(f){
volume_tetrahedron(vs[f,], vs[f,], vs[f,], centroid)
})
probs <- volumes/sum(volumes)

Now we pick a face at random, with probability given by the normalized volumes, and we sample in the corresponding tetrahedron:

nsims <- 500
sims <- matrix(NA_real_, nrow=nsims, ncol=3)
for(k in 1:nsims){
f <- faces[sample.int(nrow(faces), 1, prob=probs),]
sims[k,] <- runif_in_tetrahedron(1, vs[f,], vs[f,], vs[f,], centroid)
}

And now, let’s add the sampled points:

points3d(sims)
rglwidget()